Georg Simon Ohm1

M, #9260, b. March 3, 1789, d. July 6, 1854
Georg Simon Ohm
Georg Simon Ohm
     Georg Simon Ohm was born on March 3, 1789 in Erlangen, Stadtkreis Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany.1
Georg died on July 6, 1854 in Munich, Stadkreis Munich, Bavaria, Germany, at age 65.1
Georg Simon Ohm came from a Protestant family. His father, Johann Wolfgang Ohm, was a locksmith while his mother, Maria Elizabeth Beck, was the daughter of a tailor. Although his parents had not been formally educated, Ohm's father was a rather remarkable man who had educated himself to a high level and was able to give his sons an excellent education through his own teachings. Had Ohm's brothers and sisters all survived he would have been one of a large family but as was common in those times, several of the children died in their childhood. Of the seven children born to Johann and Maria Ohm only three survived, Georg Simon, his brother Martin who went on to become a well-known mathematician, and his sister Elizabeth Barbara.
When they were children, their father who brought them to a high standard in mathematics, physics, chemistry and philosophy taught Georg Simon and Martin. This was in stark contrast to their school education. Georg Simon entered Erlangen Gymnasium at the age of eleven but there he received little in the way of scientific training. In fact this formal part of his schooling was uninspired stressing learning by rote and interpreting texts. This contrasted strongly with the inspired instruction that both Georg Simon and Martin received from their father who brought them to a level in mathematics which led the professor at the University of Erlangen, Karl Christian von Langsdorf, to compare them to the Bernoulli family. It is worth stressing again the remarkable achievement of Johann Wolfgang Ohm, an entirely self-taught man, to have been able to give his sons such a fine mathematical and scientific education.
In 1805 Ohm entered the University of Erlangen but he became rather carried away with student life. Rather than concentrate on his studies he spent much time dancing, ice skating and playing billiards. Ohm's father, angry that his son was wasting the educational opportunity that he himself had never been fortunate enough to experience, demanded that Ohm leave the university after three semesters. Ohm went (or more accurately, was sent) to Switzerland where, in September 1806, he took up a post as a mathematics teacher in a school in Gottstadt bei Nydau.
Karl Christian von Langsdorf left the University of Erlangen in early 1809 to take up a post in the University of Heidelberg and Ohm would have liked to have gone with him to Heidelberg to restart his mathematical studies. Langsdorf, however, advised Ohm to continue with his studies of mathematics on his own, advising Ohm to read the works of Euler, Laplace and Lacroix. Rather reluctantly Ohm took his advice but he left his teaching post in Gottstadt bei Nydau in March 1809 to become a private tutor in Neuchâtel. For two years he carried out his duties as a tutor while he followed Langsdorf's advice and continued his private study of mathematics. Then in April 1811 he returned to the University of Erlangen.
His private studies had stood him in good stead for he received a doctorate from Erlangen on 25 October 1811 and immediately joined the staff as a mathematics lecturer. After three semesters Ohm gave up his university post. He could not see how he could attain a better status at Erlangen, as prospects there were poor while he essentially lived in poverty in the lecturing post. The Bavarian government offered him a post as a teacher of mathematics and physics at a poor quality school in Bamberg and he took up the post there in January 1813.
This was not the successful career envisaged by Ohm and he decided that he would have to show that he was worth much more than a teacher in a poor school. He worked on writing an elementary book on the teaching of geometry while remaining desperately unhappy in his job. After Ohm had endured the school for three years it was closed down in February 1816. The Bavarian government then sent him to an overcrowded school in Bamberg to help out with the mathematics teaching.
On 11 September 1817 Ohm received an offer of the post of teacher of mathematics and physics at the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne. This was a better school than any that Ohm had taught in previously and it had a well-equipped physics laboratory. As he had done for so much of his life, Ohm continued his private studies reading the texts of the leading French mathematicians Lagrange, Legendre, Laplace, Biot and Poisson. He moved on to reading the works of Fourier and Fresnel and he began his own experimental work in the school physics laboratory after he had learnt of Oersted's discovery of electromagnetism in 1820. At first his experiments were conducted for his own educational benefit, as were the private studies he made of the works of the leading mathematicians.
The Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne failed to continue to keep up the high standards that it had when Ohm began to work there so, by 1825, he decided that he would try again to attain the job he really wanted, namely a post in a university. Realizing that the way into such a post would have to be through research publications, he changed his attitude towards the experimental work he was undertaking and began to systematically work towards the publication of his results -
Overburdened with students, finding little appreciation for his conscientious efforts, and realizing that he would never marry, he turned to science both to prove himself to the world and to have something solid on which to base his petition for a position in a more stimulating environment.
In fact he had already convinced himself of the truth of what we call today "Ohm's law" namely the relationship that the current through most materials is directly proportional to the potential difference applied across the material. The result was not contained in Ohm's firsts paper published in 1825, however, for this paper examines the decrease in the electromagnetic force produced by a wire as the length of the wire increased. The paper deduced mathematical relationships based purely on the experimental evidence that Ohm had tabulated.
In two important papers in 1826, Ohm gave a mathematical description of conduction in circuits modeled on Fourier's study of heat conduction. These papers continue Ohm's deduction of results from experimental evidence and, particularly in the second, he was able to propose laws which went a long way to explaining results of others working on galvanic electricity. The second paper certainly is the first step in a comprehensive theory, which Ohm was able to give in his famous book published in the following year.
What is now known as Ohm's law appears in this famous book Die galvanische Kette, mathematisch bearbeitet (1827) in which he gave his complete theory of electricity. The book begins with the mathematical background necessary for an understanding of the rest of the work. We should remark here that such a mathematical background was necessary for even the leading German physicists to understand the work, for the emphasis at this time was on a non-mathematical approach to physics. We should also remark that, despite Ohm's attempts in this introduction, he was not really successful in convincing the older German physicists that the mathematical approach was the right one. To some extent, as Caneva explains, this was Ohm's own fault:-
... in neither the introduction nor the body of the work, which contained the more rigorous development of the theory, did Ohm bring decisively home either the underlying unity of the whole or the connections between fundamental assumptions and major deductions. For example, although his theory was conceived as a strict deductive system based on three fundamental laws, he nowhere indicated precisely which of their several mathematical and verbal expressions he wished to be taken as the canonical form.
It is interesting that Ohm presents his theory as one of contiguous action, a theory that opposed the concept of action at a distance. Ohm believed that the communication of electricity occurred between "contiguous particles" which is the term Ohm himself uses. The paper is concerned with this idea, and in particular with illustrating the differences in scientific approach between Ohm and that of Fourier and Navier.
As we described above, Ohm was at the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne when he began his important publications in 1825. He was given a year off work in which to concentrate on his research beginning in August 1826 and although he only received the less than generous offer of half pay, he was able to spend the year in Berlin working on his publications. Ohm had believed that his publications would lead to his receiving an offer of a university post before having to return to Cologne but by the time he was due to begin teaching again in September 1827 he was still without such an offer.
Although Ohm's work strongly influenced theory, it was received with little enthusiasm. Ohm's feelings were hurt, he decided to remain in Berlin and, in March 1828, he formally resigned his position at Cologne. He took some temporary work teaching mathematics in schools in Berlin.
He accepted a position at Nüremberg in 1833 and although this gave him the title of professor, it was still not the university post for which he had strived all his life. The Royal Society with its award of the Copley Medal eventually recognized his work in 1841. He became a foreign member of the Royal Society in 1842. Other academies such as those in Berlin and Turin elected him a corresponding member, and in 1845 he became a full member of the Bavarian Academy.
This belated recognition was welcome but there remains the question of why someone who today is a household name for his important contribution struggled for so long to gain acknowledgement. This may have no simple explanation but rather be the result of a number of different contributory factors. One factor may have been the inwardness of Ohm's character while another was certainly his mathematical approach to topics, which at that time were studied in his country a non-mathematical way. There were undoubtedly also personal disputes with the men in power, which did Ohm no good at all. He certainly did not find favor with Johannes Schultz who was an influential figure in the ministry of education in Berlin, and with Georg Friedrich Pohl, a professor of physics in that city.
Electricity was not the only topic on which Ohm undertook research, and not the only topic in which he ended up in controversy. In 1843 he stated the fundamental principle of physiological acoustics, concerned with the way in which one hears combination tones. However the assumptions, which he made in his mathematical derivation, were not totally justified and this resulted in a bitter dispute with the physicist August Seebeck. He succeeded in discrediting Ohm's hypothesis and Ohm had to acknowledge his error.
In 1849 Ohm took up a post in Munich as curator of the Bavarian Academy's physical cabinet and began to lecture at the University of Munich. Only in 1852, two years before his death, did Ohm achieve his lifelong ambition of being appointed to the chair of physics at the University of Munich.1

Citations

  1. [S1749] Internet Site: The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland).

Reverend Henry Fisher1

M, #9261
     Henry performed the funeral service for Norman William Berg, it was held on March 26, 1962 at Concordia Lutheran Church, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri, at 2 p.m.1

Citations

  1. [S1763] Funeral Home Record for Burial of Norman W. Berg, Dated March 23, 1962 , Bopp Funeral Home, Kirkwood, Missouri.

Reverend K. Hoffman1,2

M, #9262
     K. performed the funeral service for Lydia Marie Schoettle, it was held on July 23, 1949 at Concordia Lutheran Church, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri, a 2 p. m. service.1,2

Citations

  1. [S42] Lydia M. Berg obituary, July 20, 1949.
  2. [S1765] Funeral Home Record for Burial of Lydia Schoettle Berg, Dated July 19, 1949 , Bopp Funeral Home, Kirkwood, Missouri.

Elizabeth J. Marcus1,2

F, #9263, b. 1870, d. April 12, 1952
Father*John Marcus
Mother*Catharine Velva3
     Elizabeth J. Marcus was also known as Rosemann. Elizabeth J. Marcus, daughter of John Marcus and Catharine Velva, was born in 1870 in St. Louis County, Missouri.3,4
Elizabeth married John Henry Roseman, son of Francis Henry "Frank" Rosemann and Anna Mary "Maria" Niemyer, on May 1, 1919 at Missouri.2,1
Elizabeth J. Marcus and John Henry Roseman lived in 1920 720 South Geyer, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.5
Elizabeth was enumerated as the wife of John Henry Roseman under the name of "Elizabeth Rosemann" on the 1920 U. S. Census of Bonhomme Township, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri. She was listed as a married 50-year-old woman born in Missouri, her parents were born in Germany.5
Elizabeth J. Marcus and John Henry Roseman lived in 1936 1415 Mallinckrodt, St. Louis, Missouri.2 At the time of his death in 1936, Elizabeth resided at 1415 Mallinckrodt in Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.6 Her husband, John, died on November 24, 1936 at age 66.6,7,2 At the time of her death in 1952, Elizabeth resided at 8750 Magdalen Avenue in Brentwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.3
Elizabeth died on April 12, 1952 at Moll Nursing Home in Valley Park, St. Louis County, Missouri, John Henry Roseman was the informant on her death certificate.3,8 Her cause of death was acute cardiac diletation and chronic myorcarditis.3
Her obituary was published in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch Newspaper on April 14, 1952.8 Her obituary stated:
Roseman, Elizabeth (nee Marcus). April 12, 1952, wife of the late John H. Roseman, sister of Mrs. Mary Seibert, sister-in-law, aunt and cousin.
Funeral Tues., 9:15 a.m. from the Bopp Chapel, 131 W. Argonne dr., Kirkwood, to St. Peter's Church 9:30 a.m. Interment St. Peter Cemetery, Kirkwood.
8

Elizabeth J.'s wake was held on April 13, 1952 at Bopp Chapel, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.8
Her funeral service was held on April 14, 1952 at St. Peter Catholic Church, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.8 She was buried on April 15, 1952 in St. Peter Catholic Cemetery in Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri, in section 1, row 18, lot 12.4,39
Elizabeth Marcus Rosemann Tombstone
Elizabeth Marcus Rosemann Tombstone

Family

John Henry Roseman b. August 5, 1870, d. November 24, 1936

Citations

  1. [S6134] Missouri Marriage Records, 1805-2002, Ancestry.com (database online), 2007.
  2. [S1759] Funeral Home Record for Burial of John H. Roseman, Dated November 24, 1936 , Bopp Funeral Home, Kirkwood, Missouri.
  3. [S5978] Elizabeth Roseman Death Certificate.
  4. [S2220] Internet Site: The Catholic Cemeteries of the Archdiocese of St. Louis Web Site).
  5. [S3460] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), John H. Roseman household.
  6. [S6004] John H. Roseman Death Certificate.
  7. [S32] St. Peter Catholic Cemetery, St. Peter's Catholic Cemetery Burial Records.
  8. [S2804] Roseman Elizabeth (nee Marcus) Obituary, April 14, 1952.
  9. [S552] Tombstone photo, taken by Robert Berg, April 28, 2007.

Jonathan Moss

M, #9264, b. 1832, d. 1873
Father*Edward Moss b. April 19, 1800, d. January 19, 1892
Mother*Mary Boone b. 1801, d. 1846
     Jonathan Moss, son of Edward Moss and Mary Boone, was born in 1832 in Maries County, Missouri.1,2
Jonathan married Mary D. Tyree circa 1855 at Missouri.1
Jonathan died in 1873 in Missouri.2

Family

Mary D. Tyree b. between 1832 and 1834
Children

Citations

  1. [S1768] Internet Site: Eads/Simpson/Burtcher/Kegans/Ingram/Cheatham/Barker/Gunn World Connect Internet Site by Margaret May McClure).
  2. [S389] Historical Society of Maries County, Maries County Missouri, Volume III, page 312.

Edward J. Moss1,2

M, #9265, b. after 1836
Father*Edward Moss1 b. April 19, 1800, d. January 19, 1892
Mother*Mary Boone1 b. 1801, d. 1846
     Edward J. Moss, son of Edward Moss and Mary Boone, was born after 1836 in Tennessee.1
Edward married Cordelia Tyree.2

Citations

  1. [S1768] Internet Site: Eads/Simpson/Burtcher/Kegans/Ingram/Cheatham/Barker/Gunn World Connect Internet Site by Margaret May McClure).
  2. [S389] Historical Society of Maries County, Maries County Missouri, Volume III, page 312.

Temperance Moss1

F, #9266, b. November 29, 1835
Father*Edward Moss1 b. April 19, 1800, d. January 19, 1892
Mother*Mary Boone1 b. 1801, d. 1846
     Temperance Moss, daughter of Edward Moss and Mary Boone, was born on November 29, 1835 in McMinn County, Tennessee.1
Temperance married William Lawson.2
Temperance married Isaac Renfrow.3

Family 1

William Lawson

Family 2

Isaac Renfrow

Citations

  1. [S1768] Internet Site: Eads/Simpson/Burtcher/Kegans/Ingram/Cheatham/Barker/Gunn World Connect Internet Site by Margaret May McClure).
  2. [S389] Historical Society of Maries County, Maries County Missouri, Volume III, page 311.
  3. [S389] Historical Society of Maries County, Maries County Missouri, Volume III, page 312.

Louise Moss1

F, #9267, b. after 1823
Father*Edward Moss1 b. April 19, 1800, d. January 19, 1892
Mother*Mary Boone1 b. 1801, d. 1846
     Louise Moss, daughter of Edward Moss and Mary Boone, was born after 1823 in Tennessee.1

Citations

  1. [S1768] Internet Site: Eads/Simpson/Burtcher/Kegans/Ingram/Cheatham/Barker/Gunn World Connect Internet Site by Margaret May McClure).

Louis Lochhaas III1

M, #9268
Father*Louis William Charles Lochhaas Jr.1 b. August 14, 1889, d. July 8, 1949

Citations

  1. [S1757] Funeral Home Record for Burial of Augusta Lindemann Lochhaas, Dated June 19, 1935 , Bopp Funeral Home, Kirkwood, Missouri.

Reverend Don Megahan1,2

M, #9269
     Don performed the funeral service for Frances Marie Berg, it was held on February 8, 1991 at Bopp's Kirkwood Chapel, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.1

Citations

  1. [S53] Francis Sass Obituary, February 3, 1991.
  2. [S1754] Funeral Home Record for Burial of Frances Berg Sass, Dated February 2, 1991 , Bopp Funeral Home, Kirkwood, Missouri.

George F. Heege III1

M, #9270, b. March 25, 1930, d. June 29, 2001
Father*George Frederick Heege Jr1
Mother*Clara Wegener1 b. 1892
     He lived with his parents, Clara and George, in 1930 at 239 West Way Avenue in Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.2 George F. Heege III, son of George Frederick Heege Jr and Clara Wegener, was born on March 25, 1930 in Missouri.2,3
George F. Heege III lived in 1991 519 South Clay Avenue, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri.1 He reported the death of Frances Marie Berg on February 2, 1991 at St. Joseph's Hospital, Kirkwood, St. Louis County, Missouri; of congestive heart failure, attended by Doctor Timothy Pratt, M. D., 325 North Kirkwood Road.4,1,3 At the time of his death the location for mailing benefits was reported as St. Louis, Missouri by the Social Security Administration.3
George died on June 29, 2001 at age 71.3

Citations

  1. [S1754] Funeral Home Record for Burial of Frances Berg Sass, Dated February 2, 1991 , Bopp Funeral Home, Kirkwood, Missouri.
  2. [S3485] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), George F. Heege household.
  3. [S358] Social Security Death Index, Ancestry.com (database online), 2005.
  4. [S53] Francis Sass Obituary, February 3, 1991.