Pauline B. Cook1

F, #16681
Father*Andrew J. Cook1 b. 1888
Mother*Bessie M. (?)1 b. 1889

Citations

  1. [S2346] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Andrew Cook household.

Norbert W. Klingenberger1

M, #16682, b. 1913
Father*John Adam Klingenberger1
Mother*Alice E. Meyer1
     Norbert W. Klingenberger, son of John Adam Klingenberger and Alice E. Meyer, was born in 1913 in Michigan.1 Norbert W. Klingenberger vacationed with John Adam Klingenberger and Alice E. Meyer in March, 1917 at Chipley, Washington County, Florida.2
He lived with his parents, Alice and John, in 1920 at 2028 Alivey Street in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1
Norbert was enumerated as the son of John Adam Klingenberger on the 1920 U. S. Census of Wayne Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. He was listed as a seven-year-old boy born in Michigan, his father was born in Pennsylvania and his mother in Indiana. He was attending school.1
He lived with his parents,Elizabeth, in 1930 at 441 East DeWald Street in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.3
Norbert W. was a bank teller in 1930.3
Norbert was enumerated as the son of Elizabeth "Lizzie" Houser on the 1930 U. S. Census of Wayne Township, Indiana. He was listed as a single 22-year-old male born in Indiana as were his parents. He was not a veteran.3

Citations

  1. [S2347] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), John A. Klingenberger household.
  2. [S2695] Fort Wayne News Newspaper "Off To Florida", March 31, 1917.
  3. [S2351] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Elizabeth Klingenberger household.

Alberta M. Klingenberger1

F, #16683, b. December 24, 1915
Father*John Adam Klingenberger1,2
Mother*Alice E. Meyer1
     Alberta M. Klingenberger, daughter of John Adam Klingenberger and Alice E. Meyer, was born on December 24, 1915 in Indiana.1 Alberta M. Klingenberger vacationed with John Adam Klingenberger and Alice E. Meyer in March, 1917 at Chipley, Washington County, Florida.3
She lived with her parents, Alice and John, in 1920 at 2028 Alivey Street, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1
Alberta was enumerated as the daughter of John Adam Klingenberger on the 1920 U. S. Census of Wayne Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. She was listed as a four-year-one-month-old gir; born in Indiana, her father was born in Pennsylvania and her mother in Indiana.1

Citations

  1. [S2347] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), John A. Klingenberger household.
  2. [S6403] Masrilyn Klingenberger-Horell, e-mail comment on data in Berg, Frank Web Site.
  3. [S2695] Fort Wayne News Newspaper "Off To Florida", March 31, 1917.

John J. Klingenberger1

M, #16684, b. February 15, 1916
Father*John Adam Klingenberger1,2
Mother*Alice E. Meyer1
     John J. Klingenberger, son of John Adam Klingenberger and Alice E. Meyer, was born on February 15, 1916 in Chipley, Allen County, Indiana.1,3 John J. Klingenberger vacationed with John Adam Klingenberger and Alice E. Meyer in March, 1917 at Chipley, Washington County, Florida.4
He lived with his parents, Alice and John, in 1920 at 2028 Alivey Street in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1
John was enumerated as the son of John Adam Klingenberger on the 1920 U. S. Census of Wayne Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. He was listed as a three-year-ten-month-old boy born in Indiana, his father was born in Pennsylvania and his mother in Indiana.1

Citations

  1. [S2347] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), John A. Klingenberger household.
  2. [S6403] Masrilyn Klingenberger-Horell, e-mail comment on data in Berg, Frank Web Site.
  3. [S1672] Indiana Birth Records Index, 1880-1920, Ancestry.com (database online), 2000.
  4. [S2695] Fort Wayne News Newspaper "Off To Florida", March 31, 1917.

St. Francis Xavier Church (Taos, MO)

?, #16685
St. Francis Xavier Church
Taos, Cole County, Missouri
      An extensive history is included in the Parish Directory issued in 1974, in honor of Father Helias.1
     St. Francis Xavier Church (Taos, MO) is located in Taos, Cole County, Missouri. A Catholic denomination church.
St. Francis Xavier’s Catholic Church at Taos has an interesting history, it being the first church erected by the Catholics in Cole County. On May 11, 1838, Rev. Father Helias (see sketch) came to Westphalia (now in Osage County, but then a part of Gasconade) to preach the Gospel and administer the sacraments to the Catholics who were widely scattered through that part of Missouri. He first visited Taos on May 28, 1838, and said Mass in the home of Herman Nieters family.

He continued his residence in Westphalia, from which point he visited the scattering members of his numerous charges for four years. With the approval of his superiors, he moved to Taos and transferred to this place the books with the records of baptisms and marriages. From that time Taos was for a number of years the center of all the missions in that part of the state. From here Father Helias regularly visited about 25 different places named on the record, some of which are not now known. Some of the locations have been washed away by the Missouri River. His circuit included St. Thomas in Cole County; Portland in Callaway County; Columbia in Boone County; Moniteau (now Cedron) in Moniteau County; Boonville, Pisgah and Pilot Grove in Cooper County; Franklin in Howard County; and last, but by no means least, Jefferson City where he worshipped first in the house of Gen. Anthony Kramer, near where now stands the Capitol. The nearby places he visited regularly, while more distant points only twice a year, his circuit frequently involving a trip of more than 100 miles.

When Father Helias was making one of his earlier visits to Taos (then known as Haarville) from Westphalia, the congregation offered 40 acres of ground for building a church, school and home for the priest, but refused to hand the deed for the land to Father Helias, who then purchased 10 acres of land from Henry and Gertrude Haar. The old home of Mr. Harr became the oldest part of the parsonage, the kitchen.

The first church in honor of St. Francis Xavier, was built of logs in 1840 and dedicated to St. Francis Xavier, a former Jesuit missionary to India. This house was later removed to the home of Ben Forck.

Also a school was started with the church on the forty acres intended for the place of the church. The first teacher was Mr. Weger, who died there later. The school at that time was not frequented regularly, and the instruction for preparing for the sacraments could be only very imperfect because of long and frequent absence of the pastor.

Father Helias relied on the donations of his family and friends in Europe for the support of his missionary work in those days. His mother, the Countess of Lens, was the main support for the church in Taos. With money furnished by his mother, Father Helias built a stone house connected with the kitchen by a hall. In 1845, the second church was built for the growing congregation of settlers which was dedicated on April 6, 1844 and claimed the distinction of being the first stone church building in Central Missouri.

A cemetery was first laid out on the 40 acres, but since the church was not built there its use was discontinued, and a new one of about one acre was selected near the church. When this became full, the original cemetery was enlarged and is now in use again, both cemeteries having been blessed by Bishop Kenrick of St. Louis.

Father Helias died in 1874 at the age of 80, having spent 36 years of his life in Taos. He was buried in the old cemetery. In 1964, ninety years after his death, his body was exhumed and laid to rest in a marble crypt in the church. His death was sudden although not unexpected, as he told his friends that he expected to die in such a manner. He had written the remembrances of his death on the back of small pictures and distributed among his friends, the date to be filled out after his death.

After his death several priests visited Taos at intervals until Rev. Father John Gruender was appointed pastor. By his zealous and earnest efforts, new life was infused into the congregation, which made a number of improvements, a new school house was built, which was later used as a teacher’s residence, and an addition was made to the parsonage. In 1881 a large number of the congregation withdrew and erected a church at Wardsville, this being the youngest of the many parishes that went out from the mother church.

In 1880 the congregation had grown from its original 20 to over 150 families and the little “rock” church was too small, so plans were made for the building of the present church. It was completed in 1883 with all the materials obtained from the local area and volunteer labor of hundreds of parishioners. It was dedicated on September 29, 1884 by Bishop Patrick Ryan of St. Louis. The old church was used as a school.

In 1885 Father Gruender made a trip to Europe, his duties during his absence being performed by Father Schulte. He was followed by Rev. Father Joseph H. Schmidt, he being the third regularly appointed pastor, a record remarkable for a church of so long a history.

In the 1980s the church was completely restored and decorated by the Schettler Studios of Carroll, Iowa. The sanctuary was enlarged and the three altar shrines, which were crafted by monks of the Josephine in 1885, were refinished in antique ivory and gold leaf. The statues were hand-painted in a variety of hues and colors and lifelike skin tones. A completely new lighting system was installed with chandeliers throughout. The pews were refinished and equipped with seat cushions and carpeting was installed throughout the church. The ceiling painting of “Christ and the Children” and the paintings of the “Four Evangelists,” painted in 1895 by the Oppenheimer Studios of St. Louis, were cleaned, retouched, and framed in gold leaf.

The Church of St. Francis Xavier has the distinction of possessing three paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Guido Reni (1575-1642), one of which, “The Flagellation,” is a masterpiece. These paintings were a gift of Father Helias’ mother, the Countess of Lens and were brought from Europe by the Superior General of the Jesuit Order in 1846 to adorn the little rock church that was built in Taos in 1845. It is now the centerpiece of the High Altar in the present church in Taos. The other paintings of St. Francis Xavier and St. Francis of Assisi by the same artist decorate the two side altars.

The Reni paintings in the Church of St. Francis Xavier once formed an altar piece for a small village church outside of Naples. They were painted in 1601. At the time of their purchase by the Countess they were part of a collection of the Art Museum of Naples.2
••••••••• Events •••••••••.

Confirmation: Catherina Huffmeyer in 1846.3
Confirmation: Ann Maria Huffmeyer in 1846.3
Confirmation: Ignatz Huffmeyer in 1846.3
Baptism: Peter Paul Frank on October 25, 1849 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Pauline Frank on April 13, 1851 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.5
Baptism: Francis Xavier Frank Jr. on September 22, 1852 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Marriage: Edward Louis de Grendele to Catherina Huffmeyer on December 28, 1852.6,7
Baptism: Ignatius Edward de Grendele on November 27, 1853 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Marriage: Bernard Frank to Mary Ann Hoffmeyer on April 25, 1854 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.8,9,10,11
Baptism: Mary Ann Frank on March 3, 1855 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.12
Baptism: Magdalena Catherine Frank on November 25, 1855 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Catharine Hillen on January 14, 1857 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.5
Baptism: Donard Frank on July 12, 1857.4
Baptism: Joseph Gabriel Frank on March 18, 1858 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.6
Baptism: Joseph Frank on March 25, 1860 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.6
Baptism: Maria Adelaide Schnieders on April 24, 1860.5
Marriage: Herman Bernard Krummen to Euphemia Elisabeth Wolken on November 20, 1860.13
Baptism: Lizzie Huffmeyer on October 6, 1861 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Margaret Schnieders on January 28, 1862.5
Baptism: Mary Anastasia Frank on February 2, 1862 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Annie Huffmeyer in December, 1863 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Bernard Huffmeyer on November 5, 1865 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Marriage: Joseph Frank to Mary Ann Hoffmeyer on November 14, 1865 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.14,15,16,17,18
Baptism: Anna Maria Catherine Schnieders on April 11, 1866.5
Baptism: Barbara Frank on July 1, 1866 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Elizabeth "Lizzie" Frank on February 13, 1868 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.19
Baptism: Joseph G. Huffmeyer on March 11, 1869 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Francis Xavier Huffmeyer on September 7, 1869 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Bernard Frank on February 2, 1870 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: George Huffmeyer on April 10, 1870 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Edward Huffmeyer on August 7, 1871 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Helen Krummen on August 13, 1871 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Carolian Huffmeyer on March 25, 1872 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Bernard Schnieders on April 7, 1872.5
Baptism: Margaret Hoffmeyer on February 21, 1873 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Baptism: Mary Catharine Huffmeyer on February 21, 1874 by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem.4
Marriage: John Bernard Wilbers Jr. to Mary Anastasia Frank on January 20, 1880.13
Confirmation: Barbara Frank on September 14, 1888.5
Confirmation: Elizabeth "Lizzie" Frank on September 14, 1888.5
Confirmation: Bernard Frank on September 14, 1888.5
Confirmation: Catherina Huffmeyer on September 14, 1888.5
First Communion: Bernard Huffmeyer on June 1, 1890.20
Marriage: Frank Schnieders to Amilia Huffmeyer on November 15, 1892.13,21,22
Marriage: Anthony Dissen to Elizabeth "Lizzie" Frank on November 13, 1894.13,23,24,25
Marriage: Francis Ebbeler to Catherina Huffmeyer on February 10, 1897.26,27
Marriage: John H. Schulte to Margaret Ann Leigers on February 9, 1904.28,29,30
Marriage: Bernard Henry Huffmeyer to Catherine M. Hillen on May 3, 1910.31,32
Funeral: Bernard Frank on March 18, 1926.33
Marriage: Josephine M. Rackers to Joseph Henry Pleus on October 15, 1929.34
Funeral: Anna Mehmert circa October 6, 1934.35
Marriage: Charles Bernskoetter to Mildred Pleus on June 29, 1957.34,36
Marriage: Floyd E. Roberts to Mary Lee Pleus on October 10, 1959.34,37
Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem - 1964 (Reinterment from at the suggestion of then Bishop Joseph Marling.1
Marriage: Dave Pleus to Carol Ann Frank on October 17, 1964.38,39,40
Marriage: Robert Parris to Kathleen Frank on October 28, 1967.38,41
Marriage: Sandra Ortmeyer to Leon Pleus on March 27, 1971.42
Funeral: Elizabeth Beller on May 1, 1972.43
Funeral: Theodore B. Pleus on January 31, 1975.44
Marriage: Christopher William Adams to Carrie Elizabeth Muenks on August 24, 2002.45,46

Funeral: Clarence Frank Huffmeyer on March 22, 2003.47,48
Marriage: Jason Ben Prenger to Theresa Rose Muenks on May 3, 2003.49,50 St. attended the funeral of Carol Ann Frank on October 22, 2011 at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, Taos, Cole County, Missouri.39

Citations

  1. [S6129] St. Francis Xavier Taos Parish, St. Francis Xavier Taos Parish Directory.
  2. [S5033] Internet Site: Cole County Historical Society).
  3. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Confirmation Record.
  4. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Records 1837-1876.
  5. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records.
  6. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Record.
  7. [S4234] Hoffmeyer Bernard Probate File.
  8. [S4208] Bernard Frank - Mary Ann Huffmeyer marriage certificate.
  9. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Marriage Records 1838-1938.
  10. [S4982] Guy M. Sone and Ruth Wells Sone, Marriage Records of Cole Co. Mo. 1821-1900, Recorded Book B, Page 49.
  11. [S1115] 1860 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Mary A. Frank household.
  12. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Records, 1837-1876.
  13. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Marriage Records.
  14. [S1118] 1870 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Joseph Frank household.
  15. [S4206] Joseph Frank - Ann Hoffmeyer marriage certificate.
  16. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, volume 2, marriages, November 14, 1865, reel M 36.
  17. [S3384] Margaret H. Gentges, Osage County Missouri Immigrants and ships, page 30.
  18. [S4982] Guy M. Sone and Ruth Wells Sone, Marriage Records of Cole Co. Mo. 1821-1900, Recorded Book C, Page 34.
  19. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Book, 1837-1876.
  20. [S4231] St. Francis Xavier Sesquicentennial Committee, History of St. Francis Xavier Church Taos.
  21. [S4939] Frank Schnieders - Emilie Hoffmeyer marriage license.
  22. [S4049] Family Tree titled "Wolken, Lickteig, Schneider and related families," Ancestry World Tree.
  23. [S4810] Anthony Dissen - Elizabeth Frank marriage license.
  24. [S3385] Margaret H. Gentges, Osage Co. Mo. Births/Baptisms, page 31.
  25. [S4982] Guy M. Sone and Ruth Wells Sone, Marriage Records of Cole Co. Mo. 1821-1900, Book 3, page 57.
  26. [S4044] Ebbeler-Hoffmeyer Marriage Record: entry for Francis Ebbeler-Catharine Hoffmeyer, February 10, 1897 Missouri State Archives, Jefferson City, Missouri. Microfilm roll M36.
  27. [S4046] Frank Ebbeler-Katharine Hoffmeyer entry, Marriage Record, Cole County, February 25, 1897.
  28. [S2516] St. Stanislaus Catholic Church, St Stanislaus, Wardsville Church Record Book.
  29. [S6391] 1910 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), John H. Schulte household.
  30. [S6134] Missouri Marriage Records, 1805-2002, Ancestry.com (database online), 2007.
  31. [S4062] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Henry Hoffmeyer household.
  32. [S4938] Bernard Henry Hoffmeyer - Katie Mary Hillen marriage license.
  33. [S4871] Well Known Osage City Farmer Died After Brief Illness, March 16, 1926.
  34. [S2911] Jefferson City News Tribune Newspaper - Online Edition "issue of January 16, 1977."
  35. [S6447] Jefferson City Post-Tribune "issue of October 4, 1934."
  36. [S2911] Jefferson City News Tribune Newspaper - Online Edition "issue of June 30, 1957."
  37. [S2911] Jefferson City News Tribune Newspaper - Online Edition "issue of October 11, 1959."
  38. [S6430] Frank "Lost Cousins" Sign-up.
  39. [S2911] Jefferson City News Tribune Newspaper - Online Edition "issue of October 20, 2011."
  40. [S2911] Jefferson City News Tribune Newspaper - Online Edition "issue of October 18, 1964."
  41. [S2911] Jefferson City News Tribune Newspaper - Online Edition "issue of October 29, 1967."
  42. [S2911] Jefferson City News Tribune Newspaper - Online Edition "issue of March 28, 1971."
  43. [S6465] Obituary of Elizaveth Beller Frank.
  44. [S7111] Jefferon City Daily Capital News "issue of January 30, 1975."
  45. [S2497] Program for the wedding of Christopher W. Adams and Carrie E. Muenks.
  46. [S7182] Bob and Linda Berg. Invitation to Christopher William Adams and Carrie Elizabeth Muenks wedding.
  47. [S4047] Clarence Hoffmey Obituary, March 20, 2003.
  48. [S4048] Clarence Hoffmeyer Biography.
  49. [S1087] Program for the wedding of Jason Prenger and Theresa Muenks.
  50. [S7183] Bob and Linda Berg. Invitation to Jason Ben Prenger and Theresa Rose Muenks wedding.

Joseph E. Carteaux1

M, #16686, b. 1913
Father*Francis Louis Carteaux1
Mother*Agnes C. Houser1 b. August 4, 1879, d. April 2, 1952
     Joseph married Margaret C. (?)2 Joseph E. Carteaux, son of Francis Louis Carteaux and Agnes C. Houser, was born in 1913 in Indiana.1
He lived with his parents, Agnes and Francis, in 1930 at 2801 New Haven Avenue in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1
Joseph was enumerated as the son of Francis Louis Carteaux on the 1930 U. S. Census of Adams Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. He was listed as a seven-year-old boy born in Indiana as were his parents, he was attending school.1

Family

Margaret C. (?) b. October 25, 1910, d. May 12, 1975

Citations

  1. [S2349] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Frank L. Carteaux household.
  2. [S6376] Comment posted to Berg family tree on Rootsweb. Comment submitted by Marilyn Horrell on October 2, 2010.

Theodore S. Carteaux1

M, #16687, b. February 28, 1906, d. September 24, 1959
Father*Francis Louis Carteaux1
Mother*Agnes C. Houser1 b. August 4, 1879, d. April 2, 1952
     Theodore S. Carteaux, son of Francis Louis Carteaux and Agnes C. Houser, was born on February 28, 1906 in Warsaw, Kosciusko County, Indiana.1,2
Theodore married Nellie M. (?) in 1928.1
He lived with his parents, Agnes and Francis, in 1930 at 2801 New Haven Avenue in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1
Theodore S. was a knitter in a knitting mill in 1930.1
Theodore was enumerated as the son of Francis Louis Carteaux on the 1930 U. S. Census of Adams Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. He was listed as a married 24-year-old male born in Indiana as were his parents, he was married for the first time at the age of 22.1
Theodore died on September 24, 1959 at age 53.2 He was buried on September 28, 1959 in Catholic Cemetery in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.2

Family

Nellie M. (?) b. November 4, 1907, d. August 8, 1974

Citations

  1. [S2349] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Frank L. Carteaux household.
  2. [S6376] Comment posted to Berg family tree on Rootsweb. Comment submitted by Marilyn Horrell on October 2, 2010.

Nellie M. (?)1

F, #16688, b. November 4, 1907, d. August 8, 1974
     Nellie M. (?) was born on November 4, 1907 in DeKalb County, Indiana.1,2
Nellie married Theodore S. Carteaux, son of Francis Louis Carteaux and Agnes C. Houser, in 1928.1
She lived with her father-in-law, Francis Louis Carteaux, and mother-in-law, Agnes C. Houser in 1930 at 2801 New Haven Avenue in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1
Nellie was enumerated as the daughter-in-law of Francis Louis Carteaux under the name of "Nellie M. Carteaux" on the 1930 U. S. Census for Adams Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. She was listed as a married 23-year-old woman born in Indiana as were her parents, she was married for the first time at the age of 21.1
Nellie died on August 8, 1974 in LaGrange, LaGrange County, Indiana, at age 66.2 She was buried on August 12, 1974 in Catholic Cemetery in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.2

Family

Theodore S. Carteaux b. February 28, 1906, d. September 24, 1959

Citations

  1. [S2349] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Frank L. Carteaux household.
  2. [S6376] Comment posted to Berg family tree on Rootsweb. Comment submitted by Marilyn Horrell on October 2, 2010.

Theodore M. Carteaux1

M, #16689
Father*Theodore S. Carteaux1 b. February 28, 1906, d. September 24, 1959
Mother*Nellie M. (?)1 b. November 4, 1907, d. August 8, 1974

Citations

  1. [S2349] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Frank L. Carteaux household.

Julian George Klingenberger1,2

M, #16690, b. November 20, 1902, d. January, 1984
Father*John Xavier Klingenberger1 b. May 26, 1867, d. August 28, 1919
Mother*Mary Eising1 b. circa 1871, d. December 25, 1917
     Julian George Klingenberger, son of John Xavier Klingenberger and Mary Eising, was born on November 20, 1902 in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1,2
He lived with his parents, Mary and John, in 1917 at 441 East DeWald Street in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.3
He lived with his parents,Elizabeth, in 1930 at 441 East DeWald Street in Indiana.1
Julian George was a clerk in an oil tank company in 1930.1
Julian was enumerated as the son of Elizabeth "Lizzie" Houser on the 1930 U. S. Census of Wayne Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. He was listed as a single 27-year-old male born in Indiana as were his parents. He was not a veteran.1
Julian died in January, 1984 in Florida at age 81.2

Citations

  1. [S2351] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Elizabeth Klingenberger household.
  2. [S4528] Marilyn J. Horrell e-mail to Robert Berg, December 18, 2004.
  3. [S2695] Fort Wayne News Newspaper , December 26, 1917.

Earl J. Schick1

M, #16691, b. 1898
Father*Joseph Schick1
Mother*Elizabeth "Lizzie" Houser1 b. January 24, 1870
Earl J. Schick
     Earl J. Schick, son of Joseph Schick and Elizabeth "Lizzie" Houser, was born in 1898 in New York.1
Earl served circa 1917 in the U. S. Army during World War I. He was assigned to Company E, 116th infantry.2
An article in the Ft. Wayne Sentinel Newspaper stated: " . . . two brothers, John A. Klingenberger and Earl J. Schick, sons of Mr. and Mrs. John X. Klingerberger, of this city. The two boys are members of Company E and are now stationed at Hattiesburg, Miss. In a letter to their parents they state that they are very well pleased with everything. The food that is being served is clean and wholesome. The conditions at the camp are excellent, they write, and add that the government does everything in its power to make it as comfortable as possible for its fighting men.3
He lived with his parents,Elizabeth, in 1930 at 441 East DeWald Street in Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana.1
Earl J. was a welder at an oil tank company in 1930.1
Earl was enumerated as the son of Elizabeth "Lizzie" Houser on the 1930 U. S. Census of Wayne Township, Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana. He was listed as a single 32-year-old male born in New York, his father was also born in New York, his mother in Indiana. He was a veteran of the World War.1

Citations

  1. [S2351] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Elizabeth Klingenberger household.
  2. [S2695] Fort Wayne News Newspaper "More To Come Home Friday", June 5, 1919.
  3. [S2694] Fort Wayne Sentinal Newspaper "Earl J. Schick - John A. Klingenberger", October 17, 1917.

Walter Slawson1

M, #16692
Father*Ellsworth D. Slawson1 b. 1889, d. October, 1961
Mother*Margaret Yirkosky1 b. 1894, d. April, 1979
     Walter married Mary (?)2

Family

Mary (?)

Citations

  1. [S2357] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Augusta Cobain household.
  2. [S1825] NewsBank InfoWeb, "America's Obituaries & Death Notices" database.

(?) Slawson1

M, #16693
     (?) Slawson was born in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.2
(?) married Augusta Winkler, daughter of George Winkler and Charlotte (?), circa 1883.1

Family

Augusta Winkler b. 1862, d. September 12, 1932
Children

Citations

  1. [S2357] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Augusta Cobain household.
  2. [S1154] Illinois Deaths and Stillbirths, 1916-1947, FamilySearch Labs (database online).
  3. [S463] Research Papers, Berg, Blume and Schoettle Families. Prepared by Dorothea Berg Hoemann.

Augusta Winkler1,2

F, #16694, b. 1862, d. September 12, 1932
Father*George Winkler2 b. 1818
Mother*Charlotte (?)2 b. 1835
     Augusta Winkler, daughter of George Winkler and Charlotte (?), was born in 1862 in New York, New York.1,2
She lived with her parents, Charlotte and George, in 1870 at Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.3
Augusta was enumerated with her parent George Winkler on the 1870 U. S. Census for Ward 15, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois. She was listed as an eight-year-old female born in Illinois; her father was born in Bavaria and her mother in Prussia. She was attending school.3
Augusta married (?) Slawson circa 1883.1
Augusta married Rudolph Coibion circa 1897.1
Augusta lived in 1910 at 1805 Sabe Street in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, residing with her were, her children Marguerite, Nicholas and Burdette.4
Augusta was a laundress for a private family in 1910.4
Augusta is a head of household, under the name of "Agusta Coibion", on the 1910 U. S. Census of Ward 14, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois. She was identified as a 47-year-old widow born in Illinois, her parents were born in Germany. Enumerated with her were:, her sons Nicholas Sterl and Burdette R., her daughter Marguerite B.4
Augusta lived in 1930 at 2336 W. Fullerton Avenue in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, residing with her were, her children Nicholas, Ellsworth, Margaret and Ellsworth.1
Augusta is a head of household, under the name of "Augusta Cobain", on the 1930 U. S. Census of Illinois. She was identified as a 68-year-old widow born in Illinois. She was renting a residence for $55.00 per month and owned a radio. Both of her parents were born in Germany. Enumerated with her were:, her sons Nicholas Sterl and Ellsworth D., her grandsons Ellsworth Douglas Slawson Jr, her daughter-in-law Margaret Yirkosky.1
Augusta died on September 12, 1932 in Illinois.2

Census

Census YearPlaceHead of Household
1870Ward 15, Chicago, Cook County, IllinoisGeorge Winkler3
1910Ward 14, Chicago, Cook County, IllinoisAugusta Winkler4
1930Chicago, Cook County, IllinoisAugusta Winkler1

Family 1

(?) Slawson
Children

Family 2

Rudolph Coibion
Children

Citations

  1. [S2357] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Augusta Cobain household.
  2. [S1154] Illinois Deaths and Stillbirths, 1916-1947, FamilySearch Labs (database online).
  3. [S8964] 1870 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Geo. Winkler household.
  4. [S2275] 1910 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Agusta Coibion household.
  5. [S1825] NewsBank InfoWeb, "America's Obituaries & Death Notices" database.

Rudolph Coibion1,2

M, #16695
     Rudolph Coibion was born in St. Louis, Missouri.2
Rudolph married Augusta Winkler, daughter of George Winkler and Charlotte (?), circa 1897.1

Family

Augusta Winkler b. 1862, d. September 12, 1932
Children

Citations

  1. [S2357] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Augusta Cobain household.
  2. [S1154] Illinois Deaths and Stillbirths, 1916-1947, FamilySearch Labs (database online).
  3. [S1825] NewsBank InfoWeb, "America's Obituaries & Death Notices" database.

Nicholas Sterl Coibion1,2

M, #16696, b. November 3, 1899, d. December, 1966
Father*Rudolph Coibion1
Mother*Augusta Winkler1 b. 1862, d. September 12, 1932
     Nicholas Sterl Coibion, son of Rudolph Coibion and Augusta Winkler, was born on November 3, 1899 in Illinois.2,3
Nicholas lived with his parents, Augusta, in 1910 at 1805 Sabe Street in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.4
Nicholas was enumerated as the son of Augusta Winkler on the 1910 U. S. Census of Ward 14, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois. He was listed as a ten-year-old boy born in Illinois as was his mother, his father was born in France.4
Nicholas Sterl was a teamster for Eastern Teaming Company in 1918 at 1528 Van Buren St., Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.2 At the time of (an unknown value) in 1918, Nicholas resided at 3960 Elston Avenue in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.2 Nicholas registered for the draft for World War I on September 12, 1918 at Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, He was described as of medium height and stout build with gray eyes and light hair.2
Nicholas married Clara Drew Niebojeski, daughter of Joseph Niebojeski and Victorik Slawinski, circa 1920.5 Nicholas Sterl Coibion lived with his mother, Augusta, in 1930 at 2336 W. Fullerton Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.1
Nicholas Sterl was a chauffer for a steel company in 1930.1
Nicholas was enumerated as the son of Augusta Winkler on the 1930 U. S. Census of Illinois. He was listed as a married 30-year-old male born in Illinois. His father was born in France and his mother in Germany. He was not a veteran.1 His wife, Clara, died in September, 1947 at age 44.5
Nicholas (his second marriage) married Viola Dewald (her second marriage) circa 1950.6
Nicholas died in December, 1966 at age 67.6,3
His obituary was published in the Chicago Tribune Newspaper on December 5, 1966.6 His obituary stated:
Nicholas Coibion, beloved husband of Viola, nee Dewald; fond stepfather of Violet, Howard, Ray, and John Alther; dear brother of Marguerite Schoettle and Lotti Borgwardt. Member of local No. 705, I. B. of T. At Coleman's, 4611 N. Lincoln. Services 11 a.m. Tuesday. Interment Acacia Park.
6
He was buried on December 6, 1966 in Acacia Park Cemetery in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.6

Census

Census YearPlaceHead of Household
1910Ward 14, Chicago, Cook County, IllinoisAugusta Winkler4
1930Chicago, Cook County, IllinoisAugusta Winkler1

Family 1

Clara Drew Niebojeski b. December 16, 1902, d. September, 1947

Family 2

Viola Dewald d. December, 1969

Citations

  1. [S2357] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Augusta Cobain household.
  2. [S2259] Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918.
  3. [S358] Social Security Death Index, Ancestry.com (database online), 2005.
  4. [S2275] 1910 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Agusta Coibion household.
  5. [S1825] NewsBank InfoWeb, "America's Obituaries & Death Notices" database.
  6. [S2620] Nicholas Coibion Obituary, December 5, 1966.

Appendix N Immigration

?, #16697
      New York Daily Times, August 4, 1855, Page 1, an article reporting on activities at Castle Garden, newly opened as an immigrant depot by the New York Board of Emigration Commisisoners. The writer commends Castle Garden for barring "runners" and others who would prey upon and exploit new arrivals. But the writer also suggests the potential for corruption within Castle Garden, and names several points that would soon become notorious for fleecing poor immigrants of their savings--the weighing and transfer of baggage, sales of transportation inland, vendors selling snacks, etc. (The etchings shown here are not original to the Daily Times item, but have been included to illustrate the article.)


CASTLE GARDEN
==========

New Emigrants are Treated on Landing
==========

Honored is that house which for generation after generation has served as an ornament, and in its old (illegible) commences a new corner of practical usefulness. And our venerable Castle Garden is very highly considered that, after half a century of service as a (illegible) rallying place and a fashionable resort for the peddlers of amusement, now when its walls are cracked and crumbling and all its early glory deserted, it is vouchsafed the privilege of granting a home to all humanity, as well as to the City, of which it is the gateway. In the old time, New York received LaFayette in Castle Garden with its most profuse hospitality; to-day hundreds of the countrymen of LaFayette come over from vine-clad (illegible), and in Castle Garden receive the first welcome to America. So, after all, the change is not so very great. Instead of one ovation a year to some distinguished foreigner, henceforth there will be a perpetual ovation to thousands of foreigners and, whereas only straggling couples have heretofore promenaded the balcony and pledged their eternal troth, henceforth it is utterly given up to young and old, lads and lasses, old men and cru(illegible) to wander at will throughout it, talking about good old times and plotting for future revenue on Western prairies, or arranging for the service of the clergyman, and the quiet cottage and (illegible) that are to be born.


The new order of things is fairly inaugurated. We went (illegible) yesterday to see how it works.


Three ships loaded with emigrants arrived up from Quarantine, and it was a busy time all round. Comfort yourself, reader, while we tell about it:


A high board fence, through which the eye can not peer, nor over which the most curious boy can climb--for it is thirteen feet high--shuts in the proper inmates and shuts out intruders; among the “cuts” are all emigrant runners. On Thursday several of these hopeful gentlemen dressed themselves in emigrants’ clothes and tried to gain admittance under the pretense of having been landed in company with those just arrived. But the dodge did not work. Others pleaded camcatly(?) to get in to see a father or a brother, a sister or other relative, who was among the passengers. But they were too well known to palm themselves off on that pretense.


Yesterday’s few did not scruple to manifest their dislike by open demonstrations of hostility. Besides continually hooting at the employees of the Commission, as they passed in and out, they attacked one or two of them with stones. They went at Commissioner Garrigur so fiercely that he called the Police to his aid. Commissioner Kennedy drew a revolver upon them, which had the effect of cooling them somewhat. It is feared, however, the end is not yet. The Commissioners, and those under them, will go armed for the present, and will be ready for any emergency. These runners have sucked the life-blood of emigrants for so long that they think they have a right to it. And now, when upon a sudden “their occupation’s gone,” they feel as melancholy and dissatisfied with the world as do the liquor dealers where a Mai?e Law is honestly observed.


A policeman waved the leeches aside, and we presented our face at the raised opening of a narrow door. A word assured the porter, and we entered, registering our names where some score had preceded us, as is the rule for all visitors to do. Now passing the heavy door of old Castle Clinton--that was its name until 1823--let us push straight through to the opposite side and out upon the wharf. Here is a busy time. A heavily-loaded emigrant ship has just anchored in the stream, and the barge Pilgrim, towed by a steamer, is now just fastened to the pier with all her company and their luggage. The ship is the Mary, of Havre, and her passengers are of the better class,--stout, clean looking Hollanders, hopeful and hearty peasants from France--men who have a trade in their hands, skill in their brawny arms, and money in their pockets, and women who promise to be helps meet for industrious and intelligent men. As they leave the barge, they are examined with reference to their health, and to discover if any of them should be conveyed to the Hospital. They then enter the Garden and present themselves immediately at the desk in the centre of the room. There the names are registered, and the names and number of their family, the ship they come in, their point of destination, the route they prefer taking to reach it, the amount of money that they bring, etc. The following is the number of emigrants arrived these last three days, and the amount of money that they brought with them,
By the Albert 240 passengers $15,000
By the Bridgwater 450 passengers $1,753
By the Lelie? 12 families $238
By the Mary 200 passengers $14,434


If any are ignorant of the routes West an officer points out the peculiarities of each, shows the nearest cut to distant places, and informs them of the prices of tickets. Maps of the States and of the routes are hung about the room, and if the officer does his duty, no intelligent man need decide until he knows the general features of the land that lies between the promised land and Castle Garden. This information is what almost every emigrant needs, and the officer charged with the duty should be one of the best of men. The moment that he recommends one route above another he urges to the selection of this one or the other, he has violated a rule of the establishment and is worthy to be kicked out.


Next, the emigrant is shown to the baths. We join the crowd of males that flock in to the right. Here we find a large room, in the centre of which hang several coarse roller towels, and along the side is a deep trough of running Croton (sic). This is the wash-room. Soap abounds--we hope no motives of niggardly economy will ever make it lose plenty. Behind a screen that reaches across the room is the basin for bathing. A dozen or two can be accommodated in it at the same time. Indeed, every facility is granted the new comer, whatever may be his condition on entering it, to leave Castle Garden personally clean. The female bath and wash-room were the counterpart of the male, but as it was in use at the time, we consented to take the statement of our conductor and forgo a personal investigation.


Back now to the Weighmaster on the wharf each head of a family must go, point out his luggage, and receive a certificate of its aggregate weight.


Now, if the emigrant desires to stop in the City, he may leave his luggage, to be called for when wanted, and issuing out at the narrow front gate, saunter up Broadway, and squat, or tent, or buy and build as suits his own sweet will,--he is already a prospective American citizen and has the freedom of the City or the land. But few by this arrival elect to stop here--for they are wise enough to push on where they will be welcomed--to the West. All such are directed to the Clerk in an office at the front part of the building, where they exhibit their tickets, if they purchased them in the old country, or purchase new ones if unsupplied.


If the party elects to stay a day in the City, seeing its sights and getting a sense of its sounds, he is at liberty to do so, but there are no beds in the Castle, and he must take his chance with the hospitable or craven, the honest or the sharky of the metropolis, for the night. Most prefer to go on at once. And such need not wait long. The barge is soon reloaded with the baggage, and the steamer again fastening and they are borne in the several depots they are to go by without cost, and deposited just in time to take the next train onward. So does the honored old Castle enable the Commissioners of Emigration at least to fulfill their intention of dispatching the business of the Board promptly, protecting the City from the annoyance of an immense horde of strangers utterly ignorant of the name of a street, and entirely at the mercy of heartless runners and landlords. We cannot judge, of course, how soon corruption may squeeze in the narrow entrance to the Castle, and villainous tyranny begin its abuses, but it will make the eyes of the lover of his kind water with gratitude to see the improvement already effected in behalf of the poor emigrant by the removal into Castle Garden.


The large hall of the Garden is a capital place for young Europe to enjoy itself in, during the brief bouts of his tarry in our City, on his route westward. A tall fountain feeds a noble basin of water near the spot where the old stage was, and cools the air even at the noon of the heated term. The children were rollicking about it--sailing their paper boats, and full of unrestrained glee. The women eat in groups, talking in some of those crooked old country languages that make us wonder how any talking can be done there until the people come of age,--some knitting, some cutting and eating slices of rye German bread and cheese, some patching and fixing up the wardrobes of their family. They would not have cut a very fine figure in the hall room of the Yacht Club last night, but in view of their healthy forms and faces, we would like to see them matched in the dairy, the kitchen or the field with so many of our pale New York beauties. The prevalent head dress resembled such cushions as the ladies construct of drugget and stuff with hay, set upon the crown of the head, fastened by a broad belt over the head and under the chin. They wore abundant woolen skirts, and some were of no meaner breadth about the hips than our Newport queens when girded with a couple of the “corded”--but for a different reason. It was a strapping dame, we saw, who having eaten no more than the mere nubbin of a long German loaf, proceeded to pocket the big balance. She lifted up her frock, and into a sack sowed fast to her petticoat--that more than half a city bushel might be stowed in--dropped it as one might drop her thimble. As the pocket is only entered from within we--who never bet--will wager our inkstand that no pickpocket ever lightens her of the load.


The whole castle is theirs to assemble in, and none hinder way, wherever they choose to stop in it. The (illegible) are free, and numbers that at Jenny Lind’s concerts sold at fabulous prices, were open to the (illegible).


In a corner, a lad sells bread and cheese, and milk at what seems a high price, but is really cheap when it is remembered that a franc is always taken there for a shilling.


Sorry are we to add that there is a shadow of danger that the Commissioners may not be able to retain possession of the Garden for its present excellent use. But there is a little could--in the Councilmen’s Chamber.


==========

Castle Garden in the Councilmen’s Committee
On Friday afternoon the Committee on Public Health of the Board of Councilmen--(present, Messers Ranney, Slevin, and Smith)--met in the City Hall, to consider the report from the Board of Alderman as to the use of Castle Garden for an Emigrant Depot, and to hear partions in relation therein. Messers Couenhoven and Cooper were absent.


Mr. A.J. Perry appeared on behalf of the remonstrants. He quoted largely from the communication from the Comptroller, in reply to a resolution relative to leaving Castle Garden to the Commissioners of Emigration, presented to the Board of Alderman, May 31, 1855. After reciting the history of the various covenants to which Castle Garden had been subjected, as fully and explicitly set forth in that document.

http://www.theshipslist.com/pictures/castlegarden1855.htm.
Castle Clinton
More than a dozen forts were built to defend New York Harbor at the time of the War of 1812. The Southwest Battery was constructed on the rocks off the tip of Manhattan Island between 1808 and 1811. Although fully armed and staffed, the fort never had occasion to fire upon an enemy. In 1817, the fort was renamed Castle Clinton in honor of DeWitt Clinton, Mayor of New York City. The army vacated the fort in 1821 and the structure was deeded to New York City in 1823. In the summer of 1824, a new restaurant and entertainment center opened at the site, now called Castle Garden. A roof was added in the 1840s and Castle Garden served as an opera house and theater until 1854.

On August 3, 1855, Castle Garden, now leased to New York State, opened as an immigrant landing depot.

During the next 34 years, over 8 million people entered the United States through Castle Garden, until it was closed on April 18, 1890. The building was altered once again and reopened as the New York City Aquarium on December 10, 1896. It was one of the city's most popular attractions until it closed in 1941.


DESIGNATIONS
Castle Clinton National Monument - August 12, 1946

http://www.nps.gov/cacl/.
La Havre.1

Castle Garden, 1855-1890 by Ruby Coleman

With all the interest in the Ellis Island web page, researchers believe answers to immigrant ancestry will come alive on that page. It is a very useful site, but users need to know the history of Ellis Island and other ports of entry. Not everybody was processed through Ellis Island.

From 1 August 1855 to 18 April 1890, Castle Garden was New York City's landing center. It became the city aquarium from 1896 to 1941 and today is known as Castle Clinton National Monument. Today it contains a visitor center for New York's National Parks and Monuments.

Castle Garden is located on an island off the southwest tip of Manhattan. It was the first center for examining and processing immigrants. The contract between the United States and New York state was terminated in 1890, at which time the United States assumed control of immigration. New York refused to allow the federal government the use of Castle Garden.

Receiving stations, such as Castle Garden, prevented people with contagious diseases from entering the United States. The stations also served to help immigrants who were victims of deceit and robbery. Before Castle Garden (1855) ship passengers were allowed to disembark directly from the ship onto wharfs.

After the termination of the contract in 1890, immigrants were processed at the Old Barge Office. This was located at the southeast end of Manhattan near the U.S. Customs Office. Ellis Island, the first federal immigrant receiving station, was opened on 1 January 1892. At least 10,000 immigrants a day could be processed through the station.

Ellis Island was the federal government's first attempt at establishing a receiving station. A year later, the government began establishing stations at other ports. Ellis Island was used from 1 January 1892 to 13 June 1897. On June 14th just before midnight a fire broke out in the wooden building, destroying the building and administrative records for 1855-1890. However, the actual manifest that genealogists use were kept elsewhere and not destroyed.

Once again the Old Barge Office was used from 14 June 1897 until 16 December 1900, when on the 17th of December, Ellis Island reopened. The wooden building was replaced with steel, brick and stone.

In the decade prior to the election of President Lincoln, it is estimated that 2,598,214 immigrants came to the United States. They were primarily from Great Britain, Ireland and Germany. With the panic of 1857 and outbreak of the Civil War, immigration declined. Large numbers of Germans arrived in the 1840-1880 time period when 4 million came to these shores. A total of 7.5 million arrived between 1830 and 1890. This was the time period when many passed through Castle Garden.

http://www.genealogytoday.com/columns/ruby/011117.html.
ABUSES AT BARGE OFFICE

Immigrants' First Experience in Land of the Free Not Happy.
"Why do they treat those people like dogs?




Last updated March 3, 2000



HTML format Copyright © 1998 - 2000 Louis S. Alfano
All rights reserved.




Originally published in The New York Times,June 3, 1900.


Posted to the Comunes of Italy Mailing List by Gay Parisano Raab - 2 October 1998.



People who visit Battery Park for the first time and see the big crowd in from of the Barge Office cuffed about by policemen ask this question. The policemen, if the question is put to them, inform the inquisitive ones that it is none of their business, while the Barge Office officials themselves are wont to treat any complaints with silent and contemptuous disdain.

The state of affairs that is witnessed by casual lookers-on outside is a fair index of what is transpiring within the building and on the further side of it at the water's edge, except that the discomfort to which immigrants are subjected in the interior is caused rather by a lack of room than by willful intent. Those in authority say that the completion of the new buildings at Ellis Island will mark an end to the misfortunes that newly arrived immigrants are overwhelmed with, and that after the new quarters are opened there will be no necessity for herding together the incomers like sheep.

From the time a foreigner leaves his native land to seek a new home in the United States until he runs the gantlet of the blue-coated guardians of the New York Barge Office's front door, his lot is anything but a pleasant one. On shipboard, whether the officers who look after the steerage be lenient or harsh, there is necessarily much unhappiness, for the quarters prepared for that class of travelers, even in the finest steamships, are by no means palatial. In crowds and amid the nauseating odors that indigent humanity exhales the traveler spends the weary days dreaming of a new land, where there is the freedom, plenty, and contentment.

WHEN THE SHIP ARRIVES.

When a load of immigrants is brought into port, they are transferred from their vessel to the lower end of Manhattan Island in river boats kept by the Bureau of Immigration for that purpose, and as the boats are towed along the river, the chatter of many strange tongues and the melancholy wails of babies are borne to the ear.

Upon reaching the pier that forms a rear porch to the Barge Office, the boats are unloaded. The process, however, is often a slow one, and there may be such a crowd inside as to make it necessary to detain the new ones until room can be made by the discharge of those who arrived first. Sooner or later, however, the occupants of the boats are hustled out and into the back door of the building. All the while the air echoes with the shouts of "Move on, move on," and gradually the confused group of temporary prisoners is pushed and shoved up stairs to the "pens."

There, after a long wait that is due rather to the limited space than to any negligence on the officials' part, it is ascertained who is entitled to enter the country and who is not. Much "red tape" is wound and unwound, but it is said, apparently with truth, that this is necessary, and that it will not be noticeable or troublesome when space for the proper discharge of business becomes available on Ellis Island.

As the immigrants "qualify," either through the possession of the requisite cash or by reason of having relatives in the country who will guarantee their support, they are released. But their troubles are not over. Outside, lining the pavements and street and waiting for relatives or else watching the scene as a matter of curiosity, are many people. On days when the number of incomers is large, the crowd goes far into the hundreds, and there are two or more police officers present to "keep order." These officials walk to and fro along the pavement, yelling and swinging light canes. If an overenthusiastic relative pushes his way across the gutter on seeing the face of a kinsman appear at the Barge Office door, he receives some smart blows and is forced to withdraw behind the line, after which the new arrival is pushed bodily into the midst of the multitude and the arms of those who await him.

Then follow kisses and embraces, and soon the participants in the scene slip out of the crush and disappear in the direction of Broadway, while still others arrive, take their dose of blows, and finally go away. During all this commotion the baggage men, whose wagons line the street a little further down, play a conspicuous part, canvassing for trade from the newcomers and often dragging them away from their friends and into the vehicles, bag and baggage.






The Barge Office was located at the foot of Whitehall Street
on the East River at the eastern end of Battery Park.



OFFICIOUS OFFICIALS ON HAND.

Such is life in front of the Barge Office on almost every Spring day, and while the regular policemen and the crowd play their parts, there are many other individuals, of more or less authority, who help to complete the picture of disorder. Sometime a detective in plain clothes stands at the entrance to the Ellis Island Ferry landing and seems to be testing the capacity of his lungs. He, too, carries a stick, and his cries are, if anything, even louder and more vicious than those of his brass-buttoned associates. He beats, or pushes, or shakes as occasion demands, sending the venturesome trespassers flying back into the street in terror, and making a flush of resentment or fear rise to the cheeks of the women. For there is no regard for sex at the lower end of Battery Park.

"Cripps," the Battery fixture, who sleeps in a box on the pier or in the engine room of the Barge Office, has his share in the management of the crowd.

He yells as savagely as the rest, and, being fiercer of countenance, his orders are more quickly obeyed than those of the authorized guardians of the peace. Nobody dares face the glitter in the eye of "Cripps," and before his gaze Italians, Huns, Greeks, and men of various nationalities wither away in mortal fear and venture no more in reach of his eye or cane. He, without a smile and confident of his supreme authority over all "furriners" never flinches in his duty.

To the spectator who looks for the first time on the abuses at the door of the Bureau of Immigration, the treatment of women by the policemen is probably the most noticeable feature. They, like the men, are subjected to knocks in abundance, and it is not uncommon for some Italian, Irish, or German girl to be seen stifling the rising tears after being roughly pushed back by an officer, though the Irish are better treated, on the whole, than other people.

http://www.fortunecity.com/littleitaly/amalfi/100/abuses00.htm.
Ellis Island Photos.

THE BARGE OFFICE - 1898

THE ARRIVAL OF THE IMMIGRANT
by Cromwell Childe
(New York Times Magazine, August 14, 1898)
- Posted to the Comunes Of Italy Mailing List by Gay Parisano Raab - 12 July 1998



It is "steamship day" at the Barge Office, that turreted building of gray stone on the Battery's outer wall. Up the bay a few hours before an ocean liner has been crawling in from some of the cities of far-distant Europe. The onlooker might have seen, if he had been aboard that boat, a strange site or two - the people of the steerage as they felt they were at their journey's end and herded eagerly in their limited deck space to get one glimpse of what America was like. These are the men and women, the children in arms and clinging to skirts, that the Barge Office receives; the motley, ill-assorted crowd the Federal officers of immigration sift and winnow with a skill you wonder at.

They have been brought, baggage, babies and all-many babies and little baggage, alas! - in these sheds of the Barge Office now taking the place of burned Ellis Island, in a broad-decked Government harbor boat, a mass of hundreds of the unwashed tugging at grimy bundles. A few cheap trunks proclaim the existence of "steerage aristocrats." But there are few of these. The bulk and majority have little more than the clothes on their backs, hardly anything in their pockets. Yet for this they care not at all. The discomforts of the voyage, too, are forgotten. Are they not on the threshold of their hopes, and have they not already caught one sight of the land of gold, America-they heard discussed so eagerly over their country side. In their village lanes, or their cities' alleyways?

So, landed from the boat that has taken them off their ship, divided into groups that will, individual by individual, be passed through America's great immigration mill, the newcomers stand or crouch patiently, hundreds at a time. The first lesson they have to learn is that of waiting, and this the people, who are the offscourings of Europe, learn readily. Rather it is the one thing they already know.

A year at the Barge Office sees men and women of all nationalities of course, families from the remotest and smallest States of Europe, from localities even whose names are strange to the best-educated American. But there is always one tide that overshadows the rest, one nation or race that is having its day, and pours into new York from abroad in a stream that makes the other comings of little consequence. Thus, years ago, came over great sections of Ireland and Germany; thus at times have descended upon America the latter-day Norsemen; thus in the eighties the flux from the Ghettoes, the Judeastrasses and the village streets of Russa, Russian Poland, and all of Jewish Western Europe. These tides have now approximately ceased. In their places come in droves, as fast as the steamers can carry them, men and women of Sunny Italy. It is not that there are no longer immigrants from the other countries, but that Italy has of late years leaped into the first place in the immigration problem. Flowly thinly now is the stream of Hebrew immigrants, scant is the number of Germans and Austrians who want America for a new fatherland. The Italian is the immigrant of the hour. The boot that is Humbert's domain seems to be leaking, and if you oh! man, who reads and studies, should stand in the Barge Office day after day for a while you would think that every Italian town and village, yes, and every hillside, was being deserted in the race for the dollars of America.

Set down the figures the migration of the "Dago", as we have come to call him, and which does not seem an inappropriate term as the raw product is seen at the Battery before he has "squeezed through", is really extraordinarily large. The figures that follow were compiled from the Immigration records for a speech made in Congress by Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana last January. For the 72 years, ended 1892, out of nearly 15,000,000 immigrants there were 4,700,000 Germans, 3,000,000 from Ireland, 2,500,000 English, 1,030,000 Norsemen and Swedes, and but 517,000 from Russia and Poland, 585,000 from Austria-Hungary, only 526,000 Italians. In the year 1893 out of 429,000 immigrants 72,000 or one-sixth were Italians. Italy, never of account before, stood second on the list behind Germany only, and but 6,000 souls in the rear. During the years that have followed the percentage of people from "the boot" has enormously increased. In 1894, 43,000 Italians came over, again one-sixth the total number of steerage arrivals. Italy again the second country. In 1895 she passed Germany and was lead only by Ireland, this being for some reason a heavy year for people from the "ould sod." The last two years Italy has held undisputed leadership, with 68,000 men and women in 1896 and 60,000 in 1897, the first year more than one-fifth, the latter year fully one-fourth. These figures concern the entire immigration into the United States and this only serves to strengthen the point of the outpouring of modern Italy upon us. For the country, however, read New York City. It means much the same thing. But a small, insignificant, inconsiderable fraction of the immigrants land at other ports. New York is what the town laborer, the farm hand, has always in his mind. He may wander elsewhere after a short stay, he may even simply pass through the city, but "Newa Yorka" is his goal, and the one geographical title besides "Americ" that rings over United Italy to-day.

Some further curious statistics are to be found. It has been learned that the destiniation of 75 percent of the immigrants arriving here in 1897 was the North Atlantic States, 40 percent New York State alone. Illinois, including Chicago, is credited with but 5 percent, and to Pennsylvania there went but 14 percent. Take the Italians (nationalities are not separate in these figures) from the reports of expert observers among the Federal officials, and it will be discovered that an even greater percentage remain in and about New York, for some weeks after their arrival at least.

Like the traditional "woman's work" the labor of the Federal officers at the Barge Office is never done. An ocean steamship lands 600...1,000 souls, upon them at one instant. Half a dozen such steamers may heap up human freight at their door for "examination" in one single day. The arrival of two or three steamers, large and small, is not an infrequent occurence. Now, all these entities, these shreds and patches from foreign shores, must be handled.



You and I, standing in the Barge Office surveying the scene with Thomas Fitchie, New York Commissioner of Immigration, or Edward F. McSweeney, Assistant Commissioner, an expert of much repute in the management of foreigners, see only the mass, we number these people that have crossed the sea only by hundreds. In the mass they delight our sense of the picturesque, they disgust our sense of smell. Yet, gathered there in long lines, a cargoful of human life, in costumes that breathe forth the villages and cities of foreign lands, quaint in their bits of talk, with babies bright-eyed and children dirty but yet adorable, Italy comes to America has its charm-and a strong one.

But all of this is in the mass. It is the part of the officials to examine each thread of this gay-tinted fabric. Each man and each woman-yes, and each child, too-must pas in turn in review before the stern eyes, the searching questions of an Inspector. WIth consummate skill that official probes into each life. In the great crowd he sees only individuals. The quaint picture is nothing to him; there is only the man, or perhaps the woman, before his desk.

Thus, in the great room of the great shed where the immigrants await the test that decides upon their admission to the "land of gold" there come to be, after a while, no longer a confused congregation of human figures, burt men and women just like you and me, with their hopes and ambitions, their loves and their futures-all this, indeed, in a minor sense, for the bulk of these people are of small intelligence, but yet none of these things are lacking. The Government in its review tries only to set apart the sheep from the goats.

Italy is lined up in these "pens" under this shed's roof, the "pens" being for the newly arrived aisles made by stout from railings; for the "detained" those that have been examined and not admitted; the "rejected" and those who are to go before the Inquiry Board, spaces blocked off into rooms by stromg iron netting from floor to ceiling. But one shipload is handled at a time, and each immigrant has a card, distinguished by a letter and a number. THe number is his identification on the ship's manifest, the letter shows the aisle in which he is to stand while waiting.

Briefly, the inspection is a simple one. With health and a little money a man, no matter how great his family, is considered a desirable immigrant. The doors of the promised land fly open at a touch. Vigor and a cash capital of about $20 will carry the foreigner and his household through the lines without trouble. The vigor is evident to the doctors who scan each man, two or three watching the line in review, one for certain sorts of physical defects, another for conditions of health of another order. Thus a man is sometimes ordered abrupted out of the line. Another! Both doctors were rigid. This immigrant had an affection of the eyes, (the doctor noticed it by the way he walked). As to finance, the wanderer from abroad must hand up his little hoard to the Inspector for counting. With the best of the Italians who come here this consists of a few pitiful greasy bits of paper money, a coin or two, too few to even jingle.

A day spent in watching these lines of peasants and Mediterranean city poor wears quickly along. It is really the offscourings of King Humbert's domain passing before your eyes. No skilled working people these, few even that, though in this country of opportunities, will ever rise above their present planes. Nearly all are of the fashion that is content to stay poor, that cares but for labor and the lowest places. A large percentage of them have no intention of remaining more than a few years. Five hundred dollars, a thousand at most, laid aside, and then Italy again, and a life of idleness beneath the vines of some tiny house in a village. Five hundred dollars is a fortune to an Italian peasant. Meanwhile, during there days here, they keep sending their earnings abroad. The authorities have figured that the incredible amount of $25,000,000 to $30,000,000 is sent to Italy each year by the Italians of New York alone.

And yet, seen here, on the threshold of America, these men and women of Italy are strangely fascinating. Under all their squalor, all their uncouthness, under their illiteracy, they bring with them the aroma of the hills and old towns of South Europe, the romantic charm of the people of the Mediterranean shores. They are mainly from the regions about Naples and Genoa, some from Sicily, others from Calabria. Nearly all were farm laborers, for it is the country regions that are now sending their hordes over in ships; it is the genuine peasant that is coming.

Here the men will work as common laborers, largely in stone quarries and on excavations. The boys will do odd jobs, such as carrying water in factories. The women will find employment as cigar makers or in tailor shops, and the girls, even down to the smallest, will do housework. Such is the nature of these Italians who stand watching and waiting at the bar of America for permission to enter. There is standing before the Ispector Angiolina Felicetta with $12.15 in her little purse. She has come to join her husband, who, it is afterward found, is waiting for her in the crowd outside. He has come ahead to test America. All is seemingly propitious; the girl wife has come over to join him. She is but seventeen, a slip of a Neapolitane. A clumsy-fitting frock of green and yellow stripes sets badly on her girlish figure. The white cotton lace on it is torn and soiled. She wears carpet shippers, and on her head a gay fazzoletta di testa (handkerchief) is coquettishly entwined. Angiolina, according to American canons, is dirty. In Italy you would kodak her at once, and fresh off the steamship she has not lost her Old World charm. For with the green and yellow stripes there is a gorgeous pink ribbon about her neck and in her hand a yellow and green basket- her entire wardrobe.

Francesco--his last name does not come to mind--a strapping young fellow, so capable looking that he was passed with but $6 in his pocket, was a costume study in himself. He wore a pink shirt, a blue necktie, a dark-blue suit, and carried a gray shawl. And he wa but a fair type of the men along the line. Gayness in costume invariably marked them. With the women, in their peasant garb, gayness never fails. What with the brightness of their gowns, their strange slippers, the fazzoletta di testa, the scalla, or the neckerchief, the picture in review is neverending.

The bambini, the babies, swathed in long bands (fascia) are an integral part of the scene. With the aid of an Inspectress, the pretty young Italian girl mother being cajoled, the writer unrolled one of these babies from its numerous wrappings. Long strips of some Italian fabric, yards of it, were around about the child. Neck and feet it was covered. Four separate wrappings in all bound abouat the baby. When rolled up, its toilet complete, it was one stiff mass; a board could be no stiffer. Hot summer's day, the Inspectors were mopping the persperation from their brows. And the baby, a modern mummy, lay on its mother's knee and smiled.

Outside in the park and in special rooms the Italians of New York are constantly awaiting their friends. Express wagons stand for the bundles, bags and immigrants themselves. At the meeting there is much joy. This is for the admitted. In the meantime, in the "pens" the "detained" wait, eat and sleep. It is a quaint sight to see the mealing, especially of the children. The steamship companies pay for that.

----Cromwell Childe

Well, I guess this was opinion of the times. I could imagine what he was thinking into the 1900s when the Italians really came!! - GPR


http://members.tripod.com/~L_Alfano/bargeoff.htm.
Before 1855, there was no immigrant processing center. The shipping company presented a passenger list to the Collector of Customs, and the immigrants made whatever Customs declaration was necessary and went on their way.

...From August 1, 1855 through April 18, 1890 they came through Castle Garden (also known as Castle Clinton). The State of New York opened the very first examining and processing center for immigrants on an island off the southwest tip of Manhattan (Castle Garden). Immigration remained purely an affair of State, not federal, government until 1882. The court decision affirming Congressional supremacy over immigration (under the commerce clause) came down in 1875. But Congress did not act until passing the Immigration Act of 1882, which authorized the Treasury Secretary to contract with the states for enforcement of that law. Here is an account of Castle Garden in 1866 from the New York Times Marine Intelligence Column of December 23, 1866.

...A brief item about the Burial of Immigrants appeared in the April 12, 1874 issue of the New York Times.

...From 1882 the reception of immigrants was handled as a joint State/Federal system. The Secretary of the Treasury signed a contract with the New York State Commissioners of Emigration to continue its services at Castle Garden. On April 1, 1890, the Secretary terminated the contract and on April 18, 1890, the Treasury Department assumed total control of immigration at the Port of New York. The New York State authorities refused to allow the federal government to use the Castle Garden facilities.





The Barge Office
Temporary Immigration Station, circa 1890
...On April 19, 1890 the US set up a temporary center in the old Barge Office at the foot of Whitehall Street near the Battery at the southeast end of Manhattan.

...The Office of Superintendent of Immigration of the Department of the Treasury was established by an Act of Congress of March 3, 1891, and was designated as a bureau in 1895 with responsibility for administering the alien contract-labor laws. This agency eventually became the Immigration and Naturalization Service, presently under the Department of Justice.







Original Ellis Island Immigration Station
circa 1892
...Ellis Island opened on January 1, 1892. An account of its early days can be found in The Illustrated American of July 23 1892. There are 3 large graphics on this page, so it will take a while to load. However, one of them shows the original Ellis Island Immigrant Station, which was constructed of wood and slate, not the familiar brick structure that replaced it, so I believe it is worth the wait.

...Harper's Weekly of August 26, 1893, contained this account of The Detained Immigrant, who was held at Ellis Island pending either admission to the United States or deportation.

...The same issue of Harper's Weekly told of another peril facing immigrants - The National Quarantine.

...Perils began before the ships arrived in America, as related in this article of September 17, 1894, describing Immigrant Ships In A Hurricane.

...How Food Is Sold At Ellis Island was the subject of a New York Times article on December 13, 1894.

...On June 13, 1897 the original wooden structure burned to the ground. All the administrative records for Castle Garden for the period 1855-1890 and most of the records for the Barge Office and Ellis facilities were lost. Ellis Island's entire collection of state and federal lists were stored there and burned (even the underground record vault burned!). Fortunately, copies of the passenger lists were held by the Customs Collector and abstracts were held in Washington, DC. The Customs lists did not have as much information about passengers as did the Immigration lists, and the fire is the reason that the New York Immigration passenger lists begin with arrivals on June 16, 1897, instead of with 1891 arrivals.

...From June 14, 1897 through December 16, 1900 The Barge Office was reactivated and used until the new Ellis Island facility opened. An account of immigrant processing through the Barge Office appeared in the August 14, 1898 New York Times Magazine.

...Immigration patterns changed over the years. This New York Times article of December 8, 1897, discussed The Influx of Italians.

...The temporary facilities at the Barge Office were far from ideal, as described in the New York Times of June 30, 1900, in an article entitled Abuses At The Barge Office.



Ellis Island, circa 1935
The ferry entering the slip is the Government's ferryboat Ellis Island.

...Plans for the New Ellis Island Immigration Station were discussed in this article from the August 7, 1898 New York Times Magazine.

...The Ellis Island Immigration Station was rebuilt and reopened on December 17, 1900, and immigrants came through Ellis Island until 1924.

After July 1924, only those immigrants held for hearings physically "went" through Ellis Island. The vast majority were processed on board and did not step foot on the island. Otherwise it was an administrative and detention facility from 1924-1954, with other uses during WW II. All the immigrants' records were filed on the island until 1943, when the NY Immigration District Office moved to Manhattan. After 1943, then, not even the manifests went to Ellis Island.

Here is a display of Postcards illustrating the Ellis Island experience.



The history section of The Immigration and Naturalization Service Web Site contains much useful information.



A brief history of Castle Clinton/Castle Garden can be found at the National Park Service's Castle Clinton National Monument homepage.

There are many descriptions of immigrant processing through Ellis Island on the Internet. One of the best is the International Channel presentation.



Angel Island - California's "Immigration Station" is my series of pages about immigration into California by Asians. Reproduced from a book published in 1917.

Grosse Ile was Canada's "Immigration Station," and is now a Canadian National Park.

http://members.tripod.com/~L_Alfano/immig.htm.


More than a dozen forts were built to defend New York Harbor at the time of the War of 1812. The Southwest Battery was constructed on the rocks off the tip of Manhattan Island between 1808 and 1811. Although fully armed and staffed, the fort never had occasion to fire upon an enemy. In 1817, the fort was renamed Castle Clinton in honor of DeWitt Clinton, Mayor of New York City. The army vacated the fort in 1821 and the structure was deeded to New York City in 1823. In the summer of 1824, a new restaurant and entertainment center opened at the site, now called Castle Garden. A roof was added in the 1840s and Castle Garden served as an opera house and theater until 1854.

On August 3, 1855, Castle Garden, now leased to New York State, opened as an immigrant landing depot.

During the next 34 years, over 8 million people entered the United States through Castle Garden, until it was closed on April 18, 1890. The building was altered once again and reopened as the New York City Aquarium on December 10, 1896. It was one of the city's most popular attractions until it closed in 1941.


DESIGNATIONS
Castle Clinton National Monument - August 12, 1946

http://www.nps.gov/cacl/.

Castle Garden

The New York Times Marine Intelligence Column - December 23, 1866
Posted to TheShipsList by Paul Petersen, 25 Nov 1997.

Experiences of an English Emigrant
Description of the Emigrant Depot at Castle Garden
-- The First Night There
-- Despondent Emigrants
-- Difficulty of Obtaining Situations
-- Wreck of the Scotland.

Clipper Ship Approaching Castle Garden, ca. 1860

Ships simply dropped anchor here briefly while passengers and luggage were taken ashore in smaller boats. The ship would then continue on to the South Street Docks where it docked for re-supply, etc.

This painting by Gordon Grant is in the Seamans Bank For Savings Collection in New York.

The daybreak of a bright Autumn morning beamed over the magnificent Bay of New-York City as the ship Scotland, conveying some 300 emigrants from the Old World, fired a salute and cast anchor ..., amid the ringing cheers of passengers and crew. It was right pleasant -- after a passage somewhat protracted, but, for the season of the year, unprecedentedly propitious -- to at length enter the haven where we would be. With the exception of two or three nights of turbulent weather and hyperborean blasts as she passed the Banks of Newfoundland, where many a noble ship has met her fate, the voyage of The Scotland was a most favorable one and for days and days we floated over the Atlantic on a sea so level and under a sky so calm that a pleasure yacht might have sailed over it in safety. It was indeed exhilarating, after days and nights of endurance in cabin and on deck, with the ever-same boundless blue and green of firmament and sea, with only now and then a ship in sight, or the wild wheeling sea-gull on the vessel's track, to come in view of something like land and the great City of the world's commonwealth, New York.

It was a sunrise in the New World! and a glorious and electrifying sight it was, as the sun, about to ascend the horizon, flooded cloud, sky, bay and seaboard, shipping and the surrounding scenery with streaks of gold and purple - the great City itself, and its sister cities of Brooklyn and New-Jersey, waking up as it were at some celestial summons out of the dreamy darkness of the night.

"Fair was the day, in short, earth, sea and sky beamed like a bright-eyed face that laughs out openly." The steamtug ... having come alongside, was engaged for a considerable time in transhipping the luggage, till at length we were safely landed on the threshold of Castle Garden, glad and grateful to set foot on the terra firma of the free, and rest our weary limbs and sea-worm souls and systems under the wing and welcome of its refuge. Here again at the landing stage, during the process of the second transhipment, a further opportunity was presented of viewing the river scenery, now diversified with its swift-moving, mansion-looking steamers, which fairly astonished the weak eyes and nerves of those accustomed only to the lilliputian streams and petit maitre miniature landscapes of England and Europe. Truly the approach to New York is one of the most splendid and imposing in the world. Talk about the approach by the Thames to London Bridge, by the Mersey to Liverpool, by the Seine to Paris, or the Lagune to Venice! Why, you might as well compare the aforesaid muddy Thames to the great father of waters, the Mississippi, or British Snowden and the Malvern Hills to the Rocky Mountains. Things European dwindle, as it were, into specks and points infinitesimal before these stupendous stretchings and these bold outspreadings. It is Hyperion to Satyr, a wash hand-basin to a bay, and never do you so completely realize the old schoolboy reminiscence. Sic parvis componere magna solbam. As it always happens when the attention is absorbed, or the mind rapt in admiration, something extraneous steps in to mar the meditation, just as on some Summer evening when the landscape is a all lovely and serene some grasshopper of bull-frog disturbs the quietude, so illustrating the potent truth of but "one step from the sublime to the ridiculous". A bystander, in a strong Hibernian brogue, volunteers the erudite observation, "Arrah, Pat, and what do you think of Dublin Bay after that," while another from Cockney Land apostrophizes a companion, and asks him what about the breadth of Old Father Thames at Putney. We had seen multitudes of churches, public buildings, factories, stores, and other structures, as we steamed up the Bay, but the one we had now arrived at, Castle Garden, attracted particular attention, principally, in all probability, from its being the emigrants' destination. The eye of a military man would have singled it out first and foremost as a structure pertaining to his profession, while the eye of a civilian or of an ordinary observer would have taken it for a huge reservoir or gas-holder. The landing stage is all alive with the officers of the Emigration Commissioners and the Custom-house, and while they are engaged in their duties, the more curious are all on the qui vive to ascertain what can be the nature and object of the structure before them. Although appropriated to the purposes of an emigrant depot, it turns out to be an old fortress or castle, and remains one of the great landmarks or trophies in that eternally memorable struggle -- the first great war of independence. It was built by the British in 1812, after the model of the Martello towers of the old country, when they entertained the fond but futile hope of colonizing, or, in the language (Heaven save the mark) of modern diplomacy, "annexing" America to Great Britain, and has stood dismantled and in memoriam ever since. The building is of red granite, of tremendous thickness, circular in form, and furnished with portholes and platforms, so that it is available at any moment for the defence of the harbor, only requiring a garrison and a few grim Dahlgrens to impart to it its real character.

Truly strange and checkered is the history of this structure. After the first war, and when the peace and prosperity of the City were in their zenith, the building was converted into a saloon for the amusement of the people, and has on occasions held as many as 4,000 people, when JENNY LIND, the Swedish Nightingale, and MARIO and GRISI electrified with their melody the musical elite of New-York. Here also JULLIEN wielded his magic and memorable baton before thousands at his promenade concert. The building has also since been devoted to religious services and the meetings of mechanic' institutions. Although the saying of SHAKESPEARE be trite, yet the ever freshness of it is a truism, both to men and things -- "To what strange uses do we come at last!" -- is curiously applicable in this case, for now more marvelous still we have the structure devoted to one of the noblest of humanitarian uses, that of a depot, established by a paternal Republic for the strangers and children of other lands who seek its shores in such undiminished shoals.

All being ready, the emigrants proceed in a body up the corridor into the interior of the building, their boxes and baggage being removed to the luggage warehouses, and here they range themselves in order on the seats. In front of them, and in the centre of the building, which is lit by a glass dome, stand a staff of some dozen gentlemen, all busily engaged in making arrangements for facilitating the movements and promoting the settlement of the newly-arrived emigrants. Each emigrant, man, woman and child, passes up in rotation to the Bureau, and gives to the registrar his or her name and destination, as a check upon the return of the Captain of the vessel, who gives the name, place of birth, age and occupation. One of the leading officers connected with the Bureau of Information then mounts a rostrum, and addressing the assembled emigrants, tells them that such as are not otherwise provided for, or prepared to pay for their accommodation, can find shelter under the roof of that building; that advice and information of the best and most reliable kind can be had relative to tickets for railway and steamer to take them East, West, North or South; as to the best means of obtaining employment, for which a register is kept in the Intelligence Department of the Institution; also as to the best and most expeditious routes to take, with facilities for corresponding with friends, and of changing money at the Bureau of Exchange. The Intelligence Department is largely resorted to by emigrants, inasmuch as there they can obtain information as to probable situations without fee, for which outside they are asked $2 by the employment agents. A careful supervision is exercised by the office as to the suitability and respectability of the parties on both sides. All this is well and wisely done for the protection of the emigrant, who would otherwise, if let to himself, become the prey of sharpers, boarding-house "runners", "scalpers", leafers, et id genus omne. Such as are ill or invalid are at once sent to the State Hospital, where they receive the best of medical treatment and general attention. A tolerable estimate may be formed of the work and labor devolving on the establishment, when it is remembered that during the past month of November, 17,280 emigrants had arrived at Castle Garden, or a grand total of 219,830 to that date since the beginning of the year, while according to the latest return made up to Thursday last, the total number of arrivals from January to Dec. 5, had reached the enormous number of 222,494, being an increase of 26,142 over the corresponding period of the preceding year--all permeating and passing through the great artery of life and labor at Castle Garden. The advantages conferred by the regulations of the institution are developed every day in the shield of protection that, by means of its advice, information and police, it confers on the unsuspecting emigrant and on the unprotected female, the friendless, the orphan and the widow.

Such is Castle Garden as a great national refuge for the emigrant from all lands. It has nothing to parallel it on the continent of Europe. It stands alone in its noble and utilitarian character.

It was nearly evening before all the business connected with the emigrant department was over and the emigrants began to settle down in their new locality, and the building being lit up with gas gave a more cheerful aspect to the interior, and enabled us to survey the somewhat novel scene before us. You could at first imagine, were you not painfully conscious to the contrary, that all those human beings seated on the benches had assembled to witness some theatrical entertainment. On looking right and left, an arrangement will be observed to have been effected, pace the emigrants marched in miscellaneously---the Germans and Dutch, who form by far the most numerous body, being parceled off into the eastern portion of the building, which is separated from the other portion, which contains indiscriminately English, Irish, Scotch and French. Two large iron stoves, between four and five feet high, fed with plentiful supplies of anthracite, and throwing out considerable heat, occupy each end of these apartments, one being set apart for the males and the other for the females. In a far corner of each compartment is a kind of refectory, where for fifteen or twenty cents you can obtain a half a pint of coffee, a roll, cheese or butter; but many of the emigrants appeared to prefer purchasing their own tea and coffee, and preparing it in tin utensils in the stoves. There are two water taps and an iron ladle at each end of the division, from which draughts of the Croton are in constant request, nothing in the shape of wine, lager beer or spirits being allowed to be sold upon the premises. Two very civil and intelligent watchmen reconnoitre during the night to keep order and attend upon the emigrants, both having served their country in the late war. One will not very readily forget his first nights' sojourn at Castle Garden. They were indeed "noctes noiauda"---anything but "noctes ambrosiana"---it's hard boards anything but a bed of roses. Having determined to rough it with our traveling companions, who could not afford a dollar for their bed and breakfast, we essayed a sleep, but vainly. Somnus had no compassion on the denizens of Castle Garden, however much they may invoke him, for such is the cold comfortless, sepulchral character of the place. This, it is only fair to state, was the experience of the writer before the building had been placed in thorough repair arising from the wind whistling through the open casemates, doors and windows, combined with the tantamara of tongues, the squalling of children and the erratic ramblings round about of a colony of rats that it was impossible to obtain repose, even after a fortnight's rocking to and fro and reeling in the Scotland, the snug hammock of which was a comparative paradise to this. Those who were unable to sleep rose and stood around the stoves.

One subject of conversation adverted to with melancholy interest had reference to the suspected murder of one of the emigrants as the Scotland was leaving Liverpool. At all advents, the body of a respectably-dressed man, with a letter in his pocket was found stowed away in one of the recesses of the engine room, some 30 feet below deck, and in a place the seamen and firemen affirm where it could not have got by accident or a fall. The supposition is that the man was first murdered on board, and then secreted below. The head and body were dreadfully mutilated. On being discovered the body was wrapped, with some fire bars in canvas and thrown overboard. We are not aware of whether any report of this mysterious affair was made to the Emigration Commissioners or to the British Consul either here or at Liverpool, but it was a matter that called for investigation, and cast a gloom over the passengers for the remainder of her voyage. Every one, through the columns of the NEW-YORK TIMES, is now familiar with the ultimate unhappy fate of the Scotland on her return voyage, the fourteenth that she had made in and out in the service of the Transatlantic Emigration and of the National Steamship Companies. But there is one interesting incident illustrative of the sagacity and fidelity of a Newfoundland dog on board the derelict vessel, the Kate Dyer, that deserves to be recorded. Just after the vessel was run down by the Scotland and about to sink, the dog was seen to rush into the water and endeavor to rescue a youth from the watery grave that awaited him. Three successive times the dog dragged the body of the boy from the sinking ship, and the third time it slipped from him; foiled in his attempt he stood for a minute or two more howling and mournfully watching the scene, until, in desperation, he made a fourth attempt to float the body, but with no greater success than before; unsuccessful in saving the life of the lad, the Captain and crew of the Scotland, who had been intently watching the efforts of the noble animal, rewarded him by saving his life and hauling him in safely on board ship amid the cheers and congratulations of the crew.

As may be imagined, much of the conversation of the sleepless emigrants that night was directed to the good or bad fortune they had met with during the day in quest of situations and employment, and many came back reporting dolefully and despondently in that respect. Bakers butchers, boiler-makers, gardeners, grooms, and in fact masters of almost every calling to be found in the book of trades, all stated how they had canvassed the various establishments in the great City during the day, and had found, with some few exceptions, that they were all full, and that no help or hands were wanted. Never were the advertisements columns of the TIMES and other papers, for "help wanted," devoured with such avidity or the few cents for their purchase invested in them with such readiness, and it is gratifying to state that in very many instances they led to the procurement for the poor emigrant of a billet and a home. The report of a second and subsequent day's pursuit of employment under difficulties showed a much more gratifying result. Some had been temporarily, and others conditionally, engaged, either in factories or at farm-work, the latter at $12 a month and their keep, while many who had not succeeded were kindly sent, by order of the Commissioners, to Ward's Island, to be employed in miscellaneous work about the State Hospital and grounds, or to work at their respective trades, for which they received their board and lodging in return, until something better could be obtained for them. Most of the strong, healthy girls and young women, principally Irish, succeed, through the agency of the Labor Department of the Commissioners, in obtaining situations as housemaids, nursemaids, milliners, sewing-machine hands and dressmakers, and in a few days bid adieu to the sheltering care of Castle Garden. At one time, when matters looked very discouraging in the way of getting work, and many of the emigrants, after disposing of their wearing apparel, were reduced to their last few cents, the propriety of waiting in a body on the British Consul was mooted, but the suggestion was not carried out in that form. One or two, however, did venture in their individual capacity, to wait on that functionary, and after making a statement of their forlorn and embarrassed condition, were informed, to their great discomfiture and chagrin, that the Consul, although the representative of Great Britain for the protection and assistance of British subjects, had no power to render them relief, pecuniarily or otherwise, and that all he had the power of doing was to give assistance to seamen in shipwreck or distress. A poor Frenchman, who had been a waiter in Leicester Square, reduced to his last sous, also waited on the French Consul and was told to "go to Castle Garden." A similar application to a Society entitled the St. George's Society, having the reputation in England of being a good Samaritan body of gentlemen who relieved and assisted Englishmen on their arrival here, met with a similar result, it being explained by the Secretary that the limited funds at the command of the Society were appropriated to the assistance, not of emigrant Englishmen, but of needy natives and of indigent men and women far advanced in years. Well with such Job's comforters as these, might the aid of Providence be invoked by the poor emigrant! Still, as a pleasing set-off to all this, many were the little incidents told of hospitality and charity shown by residents and natives to the newcomers in their difficulty--such as the giving them a day's work and a dollar, or a hearty meal and information as to the best means of getting work, showing a genuine sympathy and fellow-feeling on the part of those who had once been adrift and in difficulty themselves.

Among the emigrants that came out on the Scotland, were three or four poor fellows who turned out to be "stow-aways"--that is to say, persons who had stowed themselves away clandestinely on board, anxious to get across, and willing to run the risk of doing so, even at the risk of three months hard labor. They were not discovered until the vessel neared New York, when every man was challenged for his ticket, and of course, in these cases, there being none to produce, the interlopers were detected and taken before the Captain, who at first threatened to exhibit them in irons on the quarterdeck, but relenting, on second consideration in his more serious intentions, he determined, after the administration of a few cuffs and a severe shaking from one of the mates, on making them work the remainder of their passage, and forthwith, the ship being short of hands, set them about swabbing the decks and helping the firemen in the coal bunks. And right glad were our "stowaways" of the mercy shown them, seeing that they had all along secured, and would continue to do so, food and lodging to the end of the voyage. At one time it was seriously contemplated by some of the more desponding and disappointed to turn "stowaway" and return from whence they came, in spite of being made the laughing-stock of those at home; and some half-dozen, who could not be induced "to wait a little longer," actually went on board to return with the Scotland.

A very noticeable thing among the miscellaneous crowd was the attention paid by the Irish portion of it to their devotions. Invariably as vesper and matin time drew nigh, men and women scattered here and there were to be seen upon their knees in supplication. At least one-third of the emigrants by the Scotland were Irish, most of them vigorous, spirited young men, many of them bent on joining the Fenian brotherhood, and speaking enthusiastically of its progress. There were two or three young priests among the number. It is astonishing how the Irish take to this country, and no wonder when it is remembered how differently they are treated to what they are in the old, of which they speak with great bitterness of spirit. Many are the weeping eyes and widowed hearts, that now under the great exodus going on are leaving their native shores, and it is understood that in the Spring the number of new-comers, more particularly from the counties of Waterford, Wexford and Cork, will be enormous. They know they can find a free home in the far west, and that they will be treated with kindness --- kindness that great key to good will and willingness of every man's heart, the want of which on the part of England and the English people, not less than their political wrongs and maltreatment, has been the great secret of the inveterate and vendetta-like feeling and alienation of Ireland from the mother country. In the States, they no longer have "the country" thrown in their face, and "no Irish need apply" is never heard in dealing with Americans. There was one among the group of woman who was the object of great commiseration. She had lost her little one on the voyage, from fever, and the poor child had to be thrown overboard, she, poor mother, being left, like Rachel, weeping for her child and would not be comforted because it was no more. It is indeed a sad thing to have to hide one's offspring in the grave on land, but there is something about death and burial in the cold canvas winding-sheet at sea, in a fathomless grave, yet harder and more galling. It is pitiable to perceive the condition of some of the young women who arrive from the mother country in the family way, though it is at the same time satisfactory to think that they will not aid in swelling the huge holocaust of infanticide there, but that their offspring, cherished and taken care of with the mothers by the State Hospital here, will form additions to the future populations. There was no prohibition against "smoking" at the Garden, his pipe being one of the prime comforts and companions of the poor immigrant in all his vicissitudes and "trials,"and the fragrant weed was freely indulged in, the more so as it was very properly prohibited, excepting on deck, during the voyage, or if indulged in, it was at the risk of being put in irons by the Captain. Two stories were told of two adventures in one of the least reputable parts of the City, not a stone's throw from Castle Garden, which if true, or of more frequent occurrence, call for serious investigation. A mulatto man from Liverpool, going down South to the cotton plantations with which he was connected, states that on one occasion he went into one of the lager-beer saloons; and having occasion to go into the back part of the premises, through a long and dingy corridor, when at the end the gas-light was suddenly extinguished, and hearing some mysterious movements, and mindful not only of his life, but watch and money, he precipitately and successfully recovered his way back and immediately left the suspicious premises and people, from which he heartily congratulated himself on his escape. Another emigrant went, the day after his landing, into a lager-beer shop kept by an Irishman, in Washington Street, without knowing the character of the locality, had a glass of beer, and sat down to rest himself, and, being rather travel-worn and weary, after being about ten minutes in the bar unconsciously closed his eyes. Suddenly the brute of a bartender, in a rude Irish brogue, ordered him to get up and go out. Taken by surprise at the abruptness of the treatment, the poor emigrant stood and stared, when the ruffian seized a heavy wooden club in the corner, and, uttering an oprecation about the English threatened to smash his customer's brains out, and as he slowly left the place, actually hit him a heavy blow with his club upon the shoulder. The occurrence may be left to speak for itself, and may be recommended to the notice of the Police. As a general rule, the emigrants behaved themselves throughout the voyage, with remarkable decorum, which was not even infringed upon when one fine night they held a sort of sea-carnival or dance on the after deck of the Scotland. It was pitiful to meet with some at the Garden who had to bemoan the loss of their boxes, and ludicrous on the other hand to see how one poor girl had contrived to keep all her earthly stock of goods in the fragile interior of two bandboxes.

Many were the complaints made by the poorer class of emigrants---forgetting that it all arose out of the war---at the high price of provisions---just double that in many instances they paid in the old country, and hoping that, if for their sakes only, the country would soon return to the ante-war prices---a consummation most devoutly to be wished. All appeared to be hearty and in good health, that most priceless of blessings, for "he that hath thee," says Sterne, "has everything with thee, but he that is so wretched as to want thee wants everything with thee." Only one or two cases had to be sent to the hospital, and altogether the vessel had a clean bill of health, far different from last year, when owing to the prevalence of cholera, many died and had to be thrown overboard. No inconsiderable amount of thieving occurred both on board and at Castle Garden, of wearing apparel and other articles and one night at the Castle one emigrant, subsequently detected through the vigilance of Officer Murphy, had the effrontery to rob another by whose side he was sleeping of his watch. In fact nothing was safe out of sight or hands for a minute from the marauders and pilferers. The crew of the Scotland being short-handed many of the emigrants were well cared for in grub and grog and paid extra for lending a hand on deck, and most lustily did they work at the ropes, singing "Yea, yeo, yea, yeo, we are all bound to go." Many of the men had become grizzly and hirsute, and much wanted a clean shave, but almost stood aghast when they heard that it would cost them twenty-five cents to have their beards taken off--an operation that, when last effected, they only paid a penny for. I have since seen some of those emigrants who were at first so despondent and could get no work, and it was delightful to see what transformation they had undergone. They had obtained situations either in stores or in some capacity and were all happiness and smiles. Their patience and perseverance had been rewarded. One or two practical thoughts and suggestions appear to arise out of the foregoing "olla pedrida" of the experiences of an emigrant. It would be a good plan if the Commissioners, in order to facilitate and increase the opportunities of getting work, were to invite notifications wherever hands were required from establishments and factories throughout the City and State, and keep a register for the purpose. Lists might be advantageously posted up in the garden, together with the daily newspapers, for the information of the emigrants. The vast space at present unappropriated in the balconies of the building might be converted into dormitories for the women and children, and those in delicate health, and a towel or two, some soap, and other requisites, would be useful supplemental articles in the washing rooms. Many a poor emigrant comes over in a filthy and verminous condition, and the first thing done with such would be to order them a bath and send them to the hospital, where their clothes might undergo a process of purification and fumigation, and so prevent the spread in the New World of the pestilences of the old. It is true the emigrant can go to church, but a better observance of the Sabbath might be added to the other regulations and arrangements of Castle Garden. One of the officers might offer a few prayers, or read a discourse, or raise a hymn, or the chaplain of the State Hospital or other establishment in the City might officiate in the evening.

Farewell, Castle Garden! I have met with nothing on the continent of Europe that can at all compare with the spectacle thou presenteth, and the benevolence and benefits that thou bestoweth - sacred asylum of the emigrant escaped from the dead ooze and dead lock of the Old World to the new life and progress, splendor and expansiveness of the New, where, under thy paternal and excelsior system, he may be no longer subjected to the terrors of landlordism, the tyranny of taxation or the evils of class representation; but, being welcomed into the great family of freedom and becoming a loyal son of the Republic, almost realize the Arcadian representation of the poet, when he tells them to go...



"And rear new homes under trees that glow
As tho' gems were the fruitage of every bough;
O'er the white walls to trim the vine,
And sit in its shadow at days's decline,
And watch their herds as they range at will,
Thru' the green savannas, all bright and still."


Again Castle Garden -- benevolent vestibule to this better land, and this better state of things! Farewell...C. M. A.

http://members.tripod.com/~L_Alfano/castle.htm.
History of Castle Garden and Ellis Island

Where did immigrants arrive in NY?
********************************************
Before August 1855 - wharfs of Manhattan

August 1, 1855- April 18, 1890 : Castle Garden

April 19, 1890-Dec. 31, 1891: Barge Office

January 1, 1892- June 13, 1897: Ellis Island

June 14, 1897 - Dec 16, 1900: Barge Office

December 17, 1900-1924: Ellis Island


NY State founded the United States' first center for processing arriving immigrants in 1855. It was established on an island off the southwest tip of Manhattan - Castle Garden. It was hoped that a receiving station off the mainland would serve two purposes : to prevent people with contagious diseases from entering the country and help arriving
immigrants from the hazards of fraud, robbery and deceit when they first arrived.

Before the creation of Castle Garden in 1855 passengers were allowed to disembark directly from the ship onto the wharfs of Manhattan.

On April 18, 1890 the Secretary of the Treasury terminated the contract with the NY State Commissioners of Emigration and assumed control of immigration of the harbor. NY officials were very upset , and refused to allow the government to use Castle Garden for immigration. Therefore, on April 19, 1890, the US government established a temporary processing center for immigrants at the Old Barge Office at the southeast foot of Manhattan near the US Customs House. A small , swampy piece of federally owned property was given to the Treasury Dept. to build the first federal immigrant receiving station. It was called Ellis Island.

Ellis Island opened on January 1, 1892. It was constructed entirely of wood, was three stories high and designed to handle up to 10,000 immigrants a day. In 1891, the federal government assumed jurisdiction over all ports, not just NY, so processing centers were established at other ports.

Just before midnight on June 14, 1897 a fire broke out in the all wooden building on Ellis Island and it burned to the ground. No ship records were destroyed since they were kept elsewhere, but all other administrative records for 1855-1890 were lost. The old Barge Office was again used as a processing center for 3 1/2 years while the new Ellis Island building was built.

On December 17, 1900 the new steel, brick and stone building on Ellis Island opened. However, it was too small from the start and would have to be expanded many times.

So, while many of us say our ancestors arrived at Ellis Island - this timeline should help you see where they _really_ arrived!

All ship manifests for Castle Garden and Ellis Island arrivals (1820-1947) are available through any FHC or NARA branch. Please see the section on Passenger Ships into NY for information on searching them.

Ellis Island Timeline
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1886 - Statue of liberty dedicated

1890 - Federal government establishes Bureau of Immigration and selects Ellis Island as first federal immigration facility; using ballast from incoming ships as landfill, work begins to double the island's size

1892 - First immigrants pass through Ellis Island, led by Annie Moore age 15 from Ireland

1897- Fire destroys original wood buildings

1900- New Beaux Arts-style immigration center opens at a cost of more than $1 million

1901- In the first full year with the new facility, Ellis Island handles 389,000 immigrants

1907- More than 1 million immigrants pass through Ellis Island, including a record 11,747 in one day.

1917- Congress requires that all immigrants over 16 be literate.

1921- First federal immigration quotas enacted.

1924- National Origins Law tightens quotas and moves immigration processing abroad, under the direction of U.S. consolates

1943- Ellis Island is used as a detention center for enemy aliens.

1954- Ellis Island is closed and put up for sale as surplus federal property.

1965- The National Park Service take over Ellis Island

1974- Federal government allocates $1 million for Bicentennial cleanup of Ellis Island

1983- Restoration of the main building begins

1990- Ellis Island Immigration Museum opens after nearly $170 million restoration.


http://community-2.webtv.net/mpetzolt2/ellisisland/.
The Detained Immigrant
Originally published in Harper's Weekly, August 26, 1893.

The hospitality of our land is given freely to all who deserve it; but Uncle Sam has drawn wisdom from experience, and in these latter days has come to demand at least a show of evidence that it will be rightly employed. For the saloon passenger our doors still swing wide open. He may come and go freely save for the inquisitive custom-house examiner and the boisterous and importunate dock cabman. But the voyager in the steerage finds his course strewn thick with obstacles. For him the New World speedily becomes a mighty interrogation point. Failure to answer properly any one of a score of questions asked him perhaps half a score of times and by as many different men, failure even to allay suspicion by his manner, though his words are satisfactory, may cost him vexatious delay, or the shame and bitterness of a wrecked ambition.

His trials presumedly begin when he seeks to buy his passage ticket; for in these days the steamship companies are made responsible for the people they bring to us, and may be subjected to a fine of $20 for each unwelcome visitor, along with the necessity of taking him home again. No sooner does the immigrant get on board ship than he is passed in procession before a physician, and if he looks ill he is put ashore. During the voyage he is put through his catechism once more. Nineteen questions are asked him concerning his nationality, age, health, trade, resources, and prospects in the New World, and these answers must be sworn to. Then he is drilled in the proper method of conducting himself before the examining officer in New York, and a tag is given him to be worn conspicuously upon that occasion, the purpose being to indicate clearly upon what particular sheet his answers are recorded.

Now approaches the immigrant's crucial hour. The steamer has safely passed the scrutiny of quarantine, though perhaps it had waited there with its impatient multitude from sundown until after the Health Officer's breakfast next morning. The customs inspectors have ceased their rummaging among the baggage. The immigrants are landed at Ellis Island, and, decorated with their tags, and divided into corresponding groups, they await the summons to the inquisition-room above.

It is a strange, a stirring, and an instructive spectacle which is thus presented almost every day in the year upon the great airy second floor of the Ellis Island building. The place is singularly suggestive of a prison in many of its aspects. Uniformed guards are everywhere --- in all the passageways and at every door --- to restrain the inquisitive roamer. Here and there in the upper part of the great room are curious little iron cages, tenantless now, but later occupied by busy railroad agents and money-changers. On either side are other great cages: one with a motley crowd of immigrants, eating, walking, sleeping, sitting listlessly with folded hands, or soothing their children's fretfulness; these are awaiting remittances or friends to take them on their journey, or else are suspects to be more closely inquired into by-and-by. The smaller company opposite are no more miserable in appearance, though more wretched in their state. They are the rejected, to be sent home again on the next sailing of the steamer which brought them. Guards stand before their close-locked door; no one may approach them. The lock slips back viciously to give egress to two of them closely attended. But presently the door shuts upon them again with a heavy clang as they return with great tubs of greasy, sickening stew for their companions' diner. Only the presence of counters here and there piled high with bread and bottles for those who care to buy, and a curious set of low iron fences forming narrow lanes lengthwise through the lower half of the room, disturb the prisonlike aspect of the place.

Presently there is a stir. A waiting figure stands before the little desk at the end of each lane; every booth is tenanted; interpreters mass themselves; and there is the distant clatter of many feet, as the immigrants crowd open-mouthed and bewildered through the further doorway. For a moment all is confusion; the carefully ticketed groups are broken, as friends find themselves separated, or parents see their little ones stupidly assigned to another batch. At length they come down their proper lanes in single file, their queer baggage bumping against the rails and playing havoc with those in the rear. They clearly have small notion of what is to follow. Some look frightened when halted at the desks, some angry, and some stolid, with the indifference of stupidity. Many are nervously defiant; now and again a woman's laugh sounds perilously akin to hysteria.

If their answers agree with those recorded on shipboard they are passed on. If there is any discrepancy or any dubiousness of manner, the suspect is pounced upon by waiting officials, questioned closely, and either sent upon his way, or pushed into the cage to await final investigation by the established board below.

It is an odd spectacle, and singularly enough, its pathos is not always to be sought in the cage of the rejected. The tear-swollen face of a young woman vainly fleeing from her shame may now and again be seen there. But for the most part its occupants are sturdy laborers or well-dressed mechanics and their children. There is often much more that is pitiful in the shrinking shyness of maidenhood, the hopeful eagerness of young manhood, the sad-eyed melancholy of old age, or the filth and ignorance which pass beyond these desks to liberty. It is a mighty stream which courses through this narrow channel. Fifty thousand souls walked in single file here last month. The population of a huge city, with its hopes and fears, its loves, its hates, and its sorrows, is halted here each year. The wonder is, not that misery is lighted upon, but that it is so little seen, and that the air is so far redolent of health and vitality, of youthful physical beauty and sturdy maturity, of mental alertness and of moral purpose.

http://www.fortunecity.com/littleitaly/amalfi/100/deten93.htm.

Ellis Island - 1892

Originally published in The Illustrated American, July 23, 1892.

Close to the mouth of the Hudson River in New York harbor is an island of two and a half acres in extent, whereon land in the United States some of the citizens of the future.

Formerly known as Oyster Island, now called Ellis Island, it was in 1808 acquired for $10,000 by the State of New York when Daniel D. Tompkins was Governor. For a long time it was use for the storage of Naval materials, and some time in the "sixties" a newspaper reporter, in search of a sensation, discovered that if the powder magazine on the island blew up, millions of New York property would go to glory a few moments later. Congress made a note of the matter; the newspaper which had agitated the subject informed the public, in big head lines, that through its enterprise the national legislature was about to take steps to save New York from destruction. Then Congress dropped the whole thing; the civil War broke out, and the enterprising newspaper discovered new sensations. It forgot about Ellis Island, and New York managed to escape being blown up.

In 1880 Ellis Island, together with the islands known as Governor's, Bedloe's (on which stands the Statue of Liberty), and David's; Forts Lafayette, Hamilton, Wadsworth, and Schuyler were granted by the State of New York to the United States. When "Uncle Sam" wisely decided to look after his future nephews and nieces himself, and to stop the many abuses which occurred when the introduction of immigrants into this country was made under the supervision of certain states having great ports --- notably New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Louisiana --- he selected Ellis Island as the dumping ground for those who came to the Empire City.

Castle Garden, which Jenny Lind made historic with her marvelous warbling, had been for many years the landing place of our political magnates. All sorts of conditions of men, women, and children were allowed to gain a foothold in New York through its gates. The Board of Immigration --- a State board --- charged the United States Government fifty cents for every Tom, Dick, and Harry, good or bad, who fled from tyranny or justice from the old world to the new, and there are a good many pickings to be found in a couple of hundred thousand fifty-cent pieces.

So abuses grew worse and worse, and at last what is known as the Owen law was passed. It restricted the indiscriminate introduction of paupers into this country. But man is vile, especially in T-----y H--l , and the late Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Windom, decided that the United States Government had better look after immigration itself.

Castle Garden became a thing of the past as far as immigrants were concerned. For a short time immigrants were landed at the Barge Office, but now they are looked after by United States officers at Ellis Island, in a manner which contrasts strongly in favor of the federal government.

No official record was made of the influx of foreigners into this country till 1820, but the immigration from the close of the Revolutionary way to that time is estimated at 225,000.

From 1820 to 1890 the number of immigrants had reached 15,641,688.

The following figures give the number of citizens of foreign countries who reached these shores between the same seventy years:

Germany, - 4,551,719
Ireland, - 3,501,683
England, - 2,460,034
British North American Possessions, - 1, 029,083
Norway and Sweden, - 943,330
Austria-Hungary, - 464,435
Italy, - 414,513
France, - 370,162
Russia and Poland, - 356,353
Scotland, - 329, 192
China, - 292,578
Switzerland, - 174,333
Denmark, - 146,237
All other countries, - 606,006

The only leading countries from which immigration has fallen off of late years are France and China.

Curiously enough, the Chinese immigration began to fall off some years before the Blair Chinese Exclusion Bill was passed.

It will be noticed that in the above tables --- which are official --- the German immigration preponderates, for Prussians, Bavarians, Saxons, Hanoverians, and Badeners are included under the one title of Germans, while the English, Scotch, Irish, and Canadians are estimated separately. If the total of British subjects is taken it will be found that 7,319,992 came to this country between the years 1820-90, and the probabilities are that a majority of those who came from "all other countries" were British subjects as well.

When the Board of Immigration was in the hands of the State, comparatively few immigrants were barred out. From January 1 to April 18, 1890, under the old law, 85,952 immigrants arrived at the port of New York, and only 82, or one-tenth of one per cent., were sent back to the old world, while in 1891-92, under the new law, about one half of one percent. were returned.







Note: The building to the right was the dining hall.


Colonel John B. Weber, the Federal Commissioner of Immigration at Ellis Island, reports that up to March 1892, the end of the fiscal year of 1891-92, there arrived at the port of New York 477,972 immigrants.

2,142 were not permitted to land, of whom 874 were unqualified and absolute paupers, whom the steamship companies were obliged to take back at their own expense.

Of those who landed, 585 became paupers during the year, due to the death of relatives. Under the old regime these immigrants would have been allowed to stay in the United States, and would have cost the country $172,900.50 for the past year.

Here are some interesting facts that statistics and reports show with regard to immigrants who arrive in New York.

About one-third of them remain in New York or Brooklyn; the rest get swallowed up in the West.

More than sixty per cent. came upon tickets sent them from friends who have made money in this country.

On quarter of one per cent. of the Scandinavians --- that is, Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes --- over fifteen years of age, who reached New York 1891-92, could neither read nor write.

One per cent. of the Germans over fifteen years of age could neither read nor write.

Great Britain is put down as sending over five per cent. who are ignorant of two of the three R's. It would be interesting to know whether the Commissioners are aware of the fact that Great Britain does not include Ireland, and why the Emerald Island, which is given a separate place in all the other statistics, is merged into Great Britain on this occasion only. If the true facts of the case were given in the report, it would be found that the percentage of Scotch ignorance of reading and writing was nearly nil, and that the Irish were no more learned that the Russian immigrants, the per cent. of whom do not know their A B C's. Of Austrians and Hungarians --- again an unfair combination --- twenty-five per cent. are reported to be ignoramuses, of Italians forty-five per cent., and of Poles sixty per cent.

People who visit Ellis Island will not be much impressed with the class of people who are to form our future fellow citizens. However, as Col. Weber, who has thoroughly studied the question of immigration on both sides of the Atlantic, tells us they are not deteriorating, we must conclude that a few months spent in this bright air of ours, and a week or two of feeling that you may go as you please, works wonders. The American who came over in the steerage a few years ago is a different person from the being you see landed at Ellis Island.

We hear a great deal of the Irish peasant girl, with black hair and blue eyes, and a complexion which would drive a Newport beauty wild with envy. We have seen her once or twice on her native sod, with stockingless feet, and we have often met her raised to the position of a barmaid; but we have never seen her at Ellis Island. Possibly she is kept in hiding. Scotland's "bonnie lassies," too, have hidden themselves away, and where are England's fair daughters? The beautiful women of Capri evidently never came to this country in the steerage, and Germany must smuggle her pretty Gretchens into this country by some other means.

The matrons and maids who arrive here, to domineer over our housekeepers, are certainly not a picturesque lot. The men are of a far finer type, and this is probably explained by the fact that the hard labor of the European peasant develops manly beauty, while it coarsens the features of the women. At any rate the European beauties do not come to this country by steerage.

When a transatlantic steamer arrives at its dock in New York, a tug or barge is sent to bring the immigrants to Ellis Island on which is a huge building of pine, faced with slate, for their accommodation. Here they can remain, but at the expense of the steamship company which brought them over, until their relatives or friends call for them. Each immigrant is thoroughly examined as to whence he came and whither he is going, and particularly questioned as to whether he is under contract. If so, he is returned to his native heath at the cost of the steamship company. If it is found that he is penniless, or likely to prove a burden to the State, or has any noxious disease, or is an idiot or a lunatic, or is a convict, back he goes to the old world.

Along Bowling Green, facing the Battery, are numerous hotels and mission houses, supported by philanthropic Catholics and Protestants, where the newly arrived immigrants can find board and lodging, and every precaution is taken by the government officers that they shall not be fleeced. A body of men, who can between them talk almost every language under the sun, is provided, and the immigrant, so long as he is under Uncle Sam's care, is thoroughly taken care of.

Nor does Uncle Sam remain satisfied with having seen him start off to the mainland with his baggage, full of hope in his prospects in the land of liberty. If he comes back to Ellis Island a pauper within a year, the government authorities see that he is taken home again by the steamship company on whose vessel he arrived here. If he falls sick of any disease which may have been incurred in that vessel or before he left Europe, they see, too, that the steamship company pays his doctor's bills.



Under the new regime, the lot of the immigrant to the United States is made as happy a one as mortal man can make, and his expense to the country has been reduced to a minimum. The new law has worked well in this way, too. The steamship companies have ceased to seek in the highways and hedges for immigrants as they did under the old regime, for they know that the United States Government has set its foot down and refuses to receive undesirable immigrants.

The logical result is that the next generation will be much better than the present. But logical results do not always occur.


http://www.fortunecity.com/littleitaly/amalfi/100/ellis.htm.

Citations

  1. [S4838] Sailors Rest & Coffee Bar image, http://www.theshipslist.com/pictures/HavreDock.htm

Cooper Robert Swift

M, #16699
Father*Robert Scott Swift
Mother*Julie Ann Berg

Family History – see:

     The Berg Family

Sammy Maddox

M, #16700
Father*Chris Maddox
Mother*Lisa Swift

Bernard Huffmeyer Sr.1

M, #16702, b. 1806, d. circa May, 1858
Father*Bernard Huffmeyer
     Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. and Joseph Hoffmeyer may have been related. Possibly as brothers. Conflicting evidence placed his birth in Rouffach, Germany on the Passenger List Index.2 Bernard Huffmeyer Sr., son of Bernard Huffmeyer, was born in 1806 in Rouffach, Haut-Rhin canton, départment of Alsace, France.3,4,5
Bernard married Catherina Sommerheisel circa 1830 at Alsace-Lorraine, Germany.6
Bernard was a farmer when he emigrated in 1843.7 He and Catherina Sommerheisel emigrated on October 13, 1843 from départment of Alsace, France. Traveling with Bernard were Catherina Huffmeyer, Ann Maria Huffmeyer, Mary Ann Hoffmeyer, Ignatz Huffmeyer, Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Rajena Huffmeyer.8,2,7
Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. and Catherina Sommerheisel immigrated circa December, 1843 to Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri, from Rouffach, France. Arriving with Bernard were Catherina Huffmeyer, Ann Maria Huffmeyer, Mary Ann Hoffmeyer, Ignatz Huffmeyer, Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Rajena Huffmeyer.9,7
Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. purchased eighty acres of land at Cole County, Missouri, on March 4, 1844 from Peter Griesser and his wife Francis Griesser.10 This indenture made this fourth day of March in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand EIght hundred and forty four between Peter Griesser and Frances his wife of the County of Cole and State of Missouri of the one part and Bernard Hofmyer of the County of Cole and State aforesaid of the other part. Witnesseth that the said Peter Griesser and Francis his wife for and in considerations of the sum of one thousand and thirty three dollars to them in hand paid the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged. We hereby grant, bargain, sell, convey and confirm unto the said Bernard Hofmeyer, his heirs and assigns forever all that tract or parcel of land situate and being in the County of Cole in the State of Missouri it being the north west quarter of the north west quarter quarter section Number twelve 12 of Range Eleven of Township Number forty three containing forty acres, and also the south east quarter of the south east quarter quarter section Number two 2 of range eleven 11 township forty three containing forty acres more in all eight acres including the farm whereon the said Peter Griesser now lives, together with all and singular the appurtenances thereunto belonging or in any wise appurtaining to have and to hold the above described promises unto the said Bernard Hofmeyer his heirs and assigns forever and the said Peter Griesser and Francis his wife. The aforesaid promises write the said Bernard Hofmeyer his heirs and assigns against the claim or claims of all and every person whomsoever do and will warrant and forever defend by these presents. In testimony whereof the said Peter Griesser and Francis his wife party of the first part have set there hands and seals this day and year first above written. Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of attest Louis Bolton and Thomas Bolton. Signed by Peter Griesser and Francis Griesser.10 Know all men by these preasants that we Barnard Houghmire and Kararen his wife fore and in consideration of the sum of one hundred and twenty five dollars paid by Allis Hesler, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged do by these presants grant bargin, sell and convey unto the said Hesler and unto his heirs and assigns forever, the following tract or parcil of land situated and lying in the County of Cole and known and described in the plat of the said land as the South part of the North East quarter 1/4 of Section No. 2 in township No. 43 of Range 11 containing eighty acres to have and to hold the said land togeather with all and singular the wrights and privileges and improvements to the same belonging unto him the said Hesler and unto heirs and assigns forever free from the claims of all and every person or persons whomsoever as witness hour hands and seal this the 8 day of May 1846. Signed Barnard Hoffmeyer and Katharina Hoffmeyer.11
Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. sold eighty acres of land at Missouri on May 8, 1846 to Allis Heslen.11
Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. purchased forty acres of land at Missouri on June 3, 1846 from Anton Fink and Katharena Fink, his wife.12 Know all men by these presents that we Anton Fink and Katharena Fink his wife of the County of Cole and State of Missouri for and in consideration of the sum of sixty five dollars to us in hand paid by the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged have granted, bargained and sold and by these presents do grant bargain and sell unto Bernard Hoffmeier his heires and assigns all our rights title and claim in and to the following described real Estate to wit: one certain pease of land situated and liing in the County of Cole and known on the plate of the said land as the South west quarter of the North East quarter of Section No two Township No. fourty three of Range Eleven containing fourty acres to have and to hold the aforesaid tract of land to him the said Bernard Hoffmeier his heires assignes forever the title to wich we bind ourselves our heires and assignes forever to warrent and defend to him the said Hoffmeiyer his heires and assignes against the claimes of all and every person whomsoever. In Testimony whereof we hereunto set our hands and seals this the third day of Juny the year of Our Lord one thoushed eight hundred and fourty six 1846. Signed Anton Fink and Catharina Fink.12 Release of mortgage
This Indenture made & entered into this the tenth day of August 1846 between John Schader now of the State of Kentucky of the first part, and Bernart Hoffmeyer of second part. Witness that whereas the said John Schader now of the State of Kentucky sold unto the said Bernard Hoffmeyer a ____ certing? tract of land, situate, lying and being in the State of Missouri and the county of Cole containing one hundred and sixty acres in Township 43 Range 11 and whereas the said Bernard Hoffmeyer did at the time of the sale executed to the said JOhn Schader his deed of mortgage for the payment of the sale of said tract of land and whereas the said Bernard Hoffmeyer has fully paid off and discharged the said Mortgage and do further acknowledge the full payment of the mortgage executed by the said Hoffmeyer _____________________. Now I the said John Schader do by these presence acknowledge that the said Hoffmeyer owes him nothing on account of the aforesaid sales and purchase and mortgage.
Now this indenture witnesseth that the said Schader doth hereby convey to the said Hoffmeyer the fortgage aforesaid and all right and title which he and his heirs may have in and to the said one hundred and sixty acres of land above described, hereby releasing the said Hoffmeyer from all claims he may have against him in consequence of the said sale mortgage and do by these presence make this indenture a full and complete deed to the said land clear of mortgages or incumberances on the same. As witness the hand and seal of the said Schader this the day and date first written. Signed John Schader.13
Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. received a land grant, issued under the April 24, 1820 Cash Entry Sale on May 10, 1848 at Missouri. The land was described as the north west quarter of the north east quarter of Section eleven in township forty three of range eleven in the district of lands subject to Sale at Fayette Missouri containing forty acres.14
Bernard died circa May, 1858.15
Bernard died intestate and Ignatz Huffmeyer was named administrator.15
     Estate of B Hoffmeyer, Ignaz Hoffmeyer, Adm
Letters Granted May 10, 1858, G. A. Parsons, clerk
State of Missouri
County of Cole
I, Ignace Huffmier Administrator or _______ for the Estate of Bernard Huffmier deceased do swear that Catherine de Grendell formerly Catherine Huffmier resident of St. Louis County in Said State, Anna Frank formerly Anna Huffmier, Mary Huffmier, Racheal Huffmier, Bernard Huffmier and Frank Huffmier and Ignace Huffmier all of Cole County aforesaid that I will make a perfect inventory of said estate account for and pay the debts as far as the assets will continue and the law direct and further that I will do and perform all things touching said administration according to law or the order of any Court having jurisdiction there of to the best of my ability so help me God. Signed by mark Ignace Hoffmyer
Sworn and subscribed to before the undersigned Clerk of the Cole County Court aforesaid this tenth day of May 1858. Signed G. A. Parsons, Clerk was prepared in connection with the estate of Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. on May 10, 1858.15
     Final Settlement of the Estate of Bernard HOfmeyer by Ignatius Hofmeyer
Set Adm in and with _____ c/o Amt received of Edward De Grindelle and other sources $653.50
By voucher No 1 $9.00
By voucher No 2 $50.00
By voucher No 3 $5.68
By voucher No 4 $2.50
By voucher No 5 $13.80
By voucher No 6 $10.00
By voucher No 7 $11.00
--------
$101.98
Due by adm. $551.52
By amt adms fee $30.00
Amt due by Adm $521.52
The following named persons are the distributees of said Estate and are entitled to the following amounts to wit:
Edward De Grendelle in right of his wife Catherine $86.92
Anna Frank $86.92
Peter Iyllake in right of his wife Mary $86.92
Bernard Hofmeyer $86.92
Frank Hofmeyer $86.92
Ignatius Hofmeyer $86.92
----------
$522.50
Most of the above named persons have received their share as above set forth in said Estate. Signed Ignatius Hofmeyer Adm the _____of Est of B. Hoffmeyer, dc was prepared in connection with the estate of Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. on August 7, 1865.15

Family

Catherina Sommerheisel d. February 25, 1854
Children

Citations

  1. [S2368] 1850 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Catharina Huffmeyer household.
  2. [S4210] Bernard Hoffmeyer entry, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s, Ancestry.com (database online), 2005.
  3. [S4211] Cornelia Schrader-Muggenthaler, Alsace Emigration Index.
  4. [S5252] Bernard Hoffmeyer Death Certificate.
  5. [S4032] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ben Hoffmeyer household.
  6. [S1486] Assumption.
  7. [S4629] Clifford Neal Smith, Emigrants from France to America.
  8. [S4211] Cornelia Schrader-Muggenthaler, Alsace Emigration Index, page 110.
  9. [S4947] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ignatz Haffeneyes household.
  10. [S4287] Hoffmeyer Bernard - Griesser Deed.
  11. [S4290] Hoffmeyer Bernard - Heslen Deed.
  12. [S4380] Hoffmeyer Bernard - Fink Deed.
  13. [S4280] Hoffmeyer Bernard-Schader Deed.
  14. [S4421] Bernard Hoffmeyer land grant, May 10, 1848.
  15. [S4234] Hoffmeyer Bernard Probate File.

Bernard Frank1,2

M, #16703
     Bernard Frank and Bernard Frank might be the same person .
Bernard (his first marriage) married Mary Ann Hoffmeyer (her first marriage), daughter of Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. and Catherina Sommerheisel, on April 25, 1854 at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, Taos, Cole County, Missouri, the marriage ceremony was performed by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem, the witnesses were Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Maria Josephine Hoffmeyer.3,4,5,1

Family

Mary Ann Hoffmeyer b. August, 1833, d. January 16, 1900
Children

Citations

  1. [S1115] 1860 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Mary A. Frank household.
  2. [S2652] Tom Turpin, Cole County Missouri Marriages 1850-1900.
  3. [S4208] Bernard Frank - Mary Ann Huffmeyer marriage certificate.
  4. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Marriage Records 1838-1938.
  5. [S4982] Guy M. Sone and Ruth Wells Sone, Marriage Records of Cole Co. Mo. 1821-1900, Recorded Book B, Page 49.
  6. [S1118] 1870 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Joseph Frank household.
  7. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Records 1837-1876.

Emilie Herrig1,2

F, #16704, b. September, 1849, d. July 12, 1934
     Emilie Herrig was also known as Anna Maria Hoffmeyer.2 Emilie Herrig was also known as Amelia. Conflicting evidence placed her birth.3 Emilie Herrig was born in September, 1849 in Missouri.1,4 As of June, 1868, Emilie Herrig was also known as Emilie Hoehlerrich.5
Emilie married Bernard Huffmeyer Jr., son of Bernard Huffmeyer Sr. and Catherina Sommerheisel, on June 10, 1868 at Cole County, Missouri.6,2,1,4,7
Emilie was enumerated with her husband, Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Emilie Hoffmeier" on the 1870 U. S. Census for Liberty Township, Cole County, Missouri. She was listed as a 21-year-old white female who was born in Missouri. She is a housekeeper.1
Emilie was enumerated as the wife of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Emilia Hoffmeyer" on the 1880 U. S. Census of Liberty Township, Missouri. She was listed as a 30-year-old white female who keeps house. She was born in Missouri and her parents were both born in Bavaria.89
Bernard and Emilie Herrig Huffmeyer
From Family Tree on Ancestry

Emilie and Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. lived in 1900 in Jefferson Township, Cole County, Missouri. Residing with them were, their children Francis, August and Lewis..4
Emilie was enumerated as the wife of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Amelia Hoffmeyer" on the 1900 U. S. Census of Missouri. She was listed as a 51-year-old white female, married for thirty-two years. She has had ten children, eight of whom are living. She was born in Missouri, while her parents were born in Germany. She is able to write and speak English.4
Emilie Herrig and Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. lived in 1910 700 Railroad Avenue, California, Moniteau County, Missouri.7
Emilie was enumerated as the wife of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Emma Hoffmeyer" on the 1910 U. S. Census of 700 Railroad Avenue, Missouri. She was listed as a 59-year-old married white female, born in Missouri. She has been in her first marriage for forty-two years and has borne ten children, eight of whom are living. Both her parents were born in Germany. She is able to read and write and speaks German.7 Her husband, Bernard, died on September 16, 1912 at age 72.10
Emilie Herrig lived in 1920 316 Main, Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri.11
Emilie is a head of household, under the name of "Amelia Hoffmeyer", on the 1920 U. S. Census of 316 Main Street, Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri. She was identified as a 69-year-old widowed white female, born in Missouri. Her parents were born in Germany. She is able to read, write, and speak English and her home is rented.11
Emilie lived with her child, August Huffmeyer, in 1930 at 318 Brooks Street in Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri.12
Emilie was enumerated as the mother of August Huffmeyer under the name of "Amelia Hoffmeyer" on the 1930 U. S. Census of 318 Brooks Street, Missouri. She was listed as a widowed white female who was born in Missouri. Her parents were born in Germany. She is able to read, write, and speak English.12
Emilie died on July 12, 1934 at age 84.3 She was buried circa July 14, 1934 in Resurrection Catholic Cemetery in Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri.3

Family

Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. b. August 21, 1840, d. September 16, 1912
Children

Citations

  1. [S2363] 1870 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeier household.
  2. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Records 1837-1876.
  3. [S4962] Resurrection Cemetery, Resurrection Cemetery Burial Records.
  4. [S4032] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ben Hoffmeyer household.
  5. [S4939] Frank Schnieders - Emilie Hoffmeyer marriage license.
  6. [S4958] Bernard Hoffmeyer - Emilie Hoehlerrich marriage certificate.
  7. [S4034] 1910 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ben Hoffmeyer household.
  8. [S2364] 1880 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeyer household.
  9. [S6186] Public Member Trees, Ancestry.com (database online), 2006.
  10. [S5252] Bernard Hoffmeyer Death Certificate.
  11. [S4035] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Amelia Hoffmeyer household.
  12. [S4037] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), August Hoffmeyer household.

Francis Xavier Huffmeyer1,2

M, #16705, b. August, 1869
Father*Bernard Huffmeyer Jr.1 b. August 21, 1840, d. September 16, 1912
Mother*Emilie Herrig1 b. September, 1849, d. July 12, 1934
     Francis Xavier Huffmeyer was also known as Hoffmeyer.3,4 Francis Xavier Huffmeyer was also known as Hoffmeier.1 Conflicting evidence placed his birth as being in 1873.5 Francis Xavier Huffmeyer, son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Emilie Herrig, was born in August, 1869 in Missouri.1,3,2 He was baptized on September 7, 1869 at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, Taos, Cole County, Missouri, by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem the sponsors included Francis Xavier Huffmeyer sponsors with an unknown relationship included Mary Franck.2
Francis was enumerated with his parent Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Frank Hoffmeier" on the 1870 U. S. Census for Liberty Township, Cole County, Missouri. He was listed as a one-year-old white male born in Missouri. His father is listed as being foreign born.1
Francis was enumerated as the son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Frank Hoffmeyer" on the 1880 U. S. Census of Liberty Township, Missouri. He was listed as a ten-year-old male born in Missouri, who has attended school in the last year. His father was born in Alsas and his mother in Missouri.6
He lived with his parents, Emilie and Bernard, in 1900 in Jefferson Township, Cole County, Missouri.3
Francis was enumerated as the son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Frank Hoffmeyer" on the 1900 U. S. Census of Missouri. He was listed as a 30-year-old single white male who works as a farm laborer. He was born in Missouri, as was his mother. His father was born in France. Frank is able to read, write, and speak English.3 At the time of his brother, Francis Xavier Huffmeyer's death in September of 1912, in 1912, Francis resided in Taos, Cole County, Missouri.7
Francis married Lillie (?) circa 1913.4
Francis Xavier was a watchman at a brewery. in 1920 at St. Louis, Missouri.4
Francis is a head of household on the 1920 U. S. Census of 3618 Iowa Street, St. Louis, Missouri. He was identified as a 50-year-old married white female, born in Missouri, as was his mother. His father was born in Elsace. He rents his home, and is able to read, write, and speak English.. Enumerated with him were: his wife Lillie, his daughters Loretta and Marie, his brother August.4
Francis Xavier was a laborer in a tobacco factory. in 1930 at Missouri.8
Francis is a head of household on the 1930 U. S. Census of 3618 Iowa Street, Missouri. He was identified as a 57-year-old white male, married since the age of 41 years. He and his parents were all born in Missouri. He owns his home, which is valued at $4000.00. He is not a veteran and does own a radio set. He is able to read, write, and speak English. Enumerated with him were: his wife Lillie, his sons Russell, his daughters Loretta and Marie.8 Francis Xavier Huffmeyer was buried on February 12, 1953 in Resurrection Catholic Cemetery in Affton, St. Louis County, Missouri, in Section 15, Lot 15, interment number 16453.5,9
Frank & Lillie Hoffmeyer Tombstone

Census

Census YearPlaceHead of Household
1870Liberty Township, Cole County, MissouriBernard Huffmeyer Jr.1
1880Liberty Township, MissouriBernard Huffmeyer Jr.6
1900Jefferson Township, Cole County, MissouriBernard Huffmeyer Jr.3
19203618 Iowa Street, St. Louis, MissouriFrancis Xavier Huffmeyer4
19303618 Iowa Street, MissouriFrancis Xavier Huffmeyer8

Family

Lillie (?) b. 1888, d. November, 1969
Children

Citations

  1. [S2363] 1870 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeier household.
  2. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Records 1837-1876.
  3. [S4032] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ben Hoffmeyer household.
  4. [S4059] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Frank Hoffmeyer household.
  5. [S2220] Internet Site: page 15The Catholic Cemeteries of the Archdiocese of St. Louis Web Site).
  6. [S2364] 1880 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeyer household.
  7. [S5252] Bernard Hoffmeyer Death Certificate.
  8. [S4065] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Frank Hoffmeyer household.
  9. [S552] Tombstone photo,.

Edward Huffmeyer1

M, #16706, b. June 24, 1871, d. January 5, 1958
Father*Bernard Huffmeyer Jr.1 b. August 21, 1840, d. September 16, 1912
Mother*Emilie Herrig1 b. September, 1849, d. July 12, 1934
     Edward Huffmeyer, son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Emilie Herrig, was born on June 24, 1871 in Missouri.1,2,3 He was baptized on August 7, 1871 at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, Taos, Cole County, Missouri, by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem the sponsors included Agatha Hoffmeyer sponsors with an unknown relationship included Joseph Frank.4
Edward was enumerated as the son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Edward Hoffmeyer" on the 1880 U. S. Census of Liberty Township, Cole County, Missouri. He was listed as an eight-year-old male born in Missouri, who had attended school in the last year. His father was born in Alsas and his mother in Missouri.1
Edward married Matilda Buggeln, daughter of Martin Buggeln and Henrietta F. (?) (w/ Martin Buggeln), in 1898.2
Edward was a teamster. in 1900 at Arizona.2
Edward is a head of household, under the name of "Edward Hoffmeyer", on the 1900 U. S. Census of Williams Town, Coconino County, Arizona. He was identified as a 28-year-old married white male, born in Missouri as was his mother. His father was born in Germany. Edward has been married for two years, rents his home, and is able to read, write, and speak English. Enumerated with him was his wife, Matilda.2
Edward was a teamster at a Brewery. in 1910 at Arizona.5
Edward is a head of household on the 1910 U. S. Census of Second Street, Williams Town, Coconino County, Arizona. He was identified as a 38-year-old married white male. He has been in this, his first marriage for twelve years. He and his mother were born in Missouri, while his father was born in Germany. He owns his home, free of mortgage and is able to read, write, and speak English.. Enumerated with him were: his wife Matilda, his son Edward M., his mother-in-law Henrietta F. (?) (w/ Martin Buggeln).5
Edward was proprietor of a transfer business. in 1920 at Arizona.6
Edward is a head of household, under the name of "Edward Hoffmeyer", on the 1920 U. S. Census of Second Street, Arizona. He was identified as a 48-year-old married white male, who was born in Missouri as was his mother. His father was born in Germany. Edward owns his own home, free of mortgage, and is able to read, write, and speak English. Enumerated with him were: his wife Matilda, his son Edward M.6
He was Chairman of the Board of the Williams Recreational Association.3
Edward died on January 5, 1958 in Coconino County, Arizona, at age 86.3 He was buried in January, 1958 in Williams Cemetery in Williams Town, Coconino County, Arizona, in section four.3

Family

Matilda Buggeln b. October 16, 1872, d. May 2, 1958
Child

Citations

  1. [S2364] 1880 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeyer household.
  2. [S4054] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Edward Hoffmeyer household.
  3. [S4196] Williams Cemetery, Burial Records.
  4. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Records 1837-1876.
  5. [S4055] 1910 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Edward Hoffmeyer household.
  6. [S4061] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Edward Hoffmeyer household.
  7. [S4051] 1850 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Joseph Hoffmeyer household.

Margaret Hoffmeyer

F, #16707, b. January, 1874
Father*Bernard Huffmeyer Jr.1 b. August 21, 1840, d. September 16, 1912
Mother*Emilie Herrig1 b. September, 1849, d. July 12, 1934
     She was baptized on February 21, 1873 at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, Taos, Cole County, Missouri, by Reverend Ferdinand Mary Helias d'Huddeghem the sponsors included Ignatz Huffmeyer.2 Margaret Hoffmeyer, daughter of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Emilie Herrig, was born in January, 1874 in Missouri.1,2,3
Margaret was enumerated as the daughter of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Margaret Hoffmeyer" on the 1880 U. S. Census of Liberty Township, Cole County, Missouri. She was listed as a seven-year-old girl born in Missouri. Her father was born in Alsas and her mother in Missouri.1
Margaret Hoffmeyer lived in October, 1892 Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri.4 She and Henry J. Lartonoix obtained a marriage license on October 31, 1892 at Missouri.5
Margaret married Henry J. Lartonoix, son of George M. Lartonoix and Elizabeth (?), on November 1, 1892 at Missouri. The marriage ceremony was conducted by A. J. S. Hoog, a Catholic priest.6 As of after 1892, Margaret Hoffmeyer was also known as Margaret Lastonoix.6
Margaret was enumerated as the daughter-in-law of George M. Lartonoix under the name of "Maggie Saritonoex" on the 1900 U. S. Census for 318 Elm Street, Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri. She was listed as a 26-year-old female, married for eight years. She has borne two children, both of whome are living. She and her mother were born in Missouri, while her father was born in Germany. She is able to read, write, and speak English.3
Margaret was enumerated as the wife of Henry J. Lartonoix under the name of "Maggie Lasbonoix" on the 1910 U. S. Census of 529 East High Street, Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri. She was listed as a 37-year-old white female, married for seventeen years. She and her mother were born in Missouri, while her father was born in the Germany. She has borne three children, two of whom are living. She is able to read, write, and speak English.7
Margaret Hoffmeyer lived in 1919 Missouri.8
Margaret was enumerated as the wife of Henry J. Lartonoix on the 1930 U. S. Census of 529 East High Street, Missouri. She was listed as a 54-year-old white female, married since the age of 20 years. She was born in Missouri, while her parents were born in France. She is able to read, write, and speak English.9

Family

Henry J. Lartonoix b. February, 1867
Children

Citations

  1. [S2364] 1880 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeyer household.
  2. [S2653] St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, St. Francis Xavier Church Records, Baptismal Records 1837-1876.
  3. [S5782] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), George Saritonoex household.
  4. [S4938] Bernard Henry Hoffmeyer - Katie Mary Hillen marriage license.
  5. [S4215] Henry J. Lastonoix - Margaret Hoffmeyer marriage license.
  6. [S4216] Henry J. Lastonoix - Margaret Hoffmeyer marriage certificate.
  7. [S5784] 1910 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), H. J. Lartonoix household.
  8. [S4805] Hoffmeyer Francis X. Obituary, February 24, 1915.
  9. [S5788] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Henry J. Lartonoix household.
  10. [S6712] Earl Henry Laternoix baptismal record.

Bernard Huffmeyer1

M, #16708, b. October, 1877, d. June 19, 1948
Father*Bernard Huffmeyer Jr.1 b. August 21, 1840, d. September 16, 1912
Mother*Emilie Herrig1 b. September, 1849, d. July 12, 1934
     Bernard Huffmeyer was also known as Benjamin.2,3 Bernard Huffmeyer was also known as Hoffmeyer.4 Conflicting evidence placed his birth.5,6 Bernard Huffmeyer, son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Emilie Herrig, was born in October, 1877 in Missouri.1,4
Bernard was enumerated as the son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Bernard Hoffmeyer" on the 1880 U. S. Census of Liberty Township, Cole County, Missouri. He was listed as a three-year-old male born in Missouri. His father was born in Alsas and his mother in Missouri.1
Bernard Huffmeyer received his First Holy Communion on June 1, 1890 at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, Taos, Cole County, Missouri.7
In 1900 Bernard Huffmeyer farmed in Cole County, Missouri.4
Bernard (his first marriage) married Emma Seibert in 1900.8
Bernard is a head of household, under the name of "Ben Hoffmeyer", on the 1900 U. S. Census of Jefferson Township, Cole County, Missouri. He was identified as a 23-year-old married white male, born in Missouri as was his mother. His father was born in Germany. He is able to read, write, and speak English. Enumerated with him was his wife, Emma.4
Bernard (his second marriage) married Anna (?) circa 1906.3
Bernard was a farmer in 1910 at Moniteau County, Missouri.2
Anna and Bernard Huffmeyer lived in 1910 at Harrison Township in Moniteau County, Missouri. Residing with them were, their children Oscar, Elsie and Claude..2
Bernard is a head of household, under the name of "Benjamin Hoffmeyer", on the 1910 U. S. Census of Harrison Township, Missouri. He was identified as a married 33-year-old white male. He and his mother were both born in Missouri. His father was born in Germany. He has been in this, his second marriage, for four years. He is able to speak, read, and write English. His farm is mortgaged and numbers 13 on the farm enumeration. Enumerated with him were: his wife Anna, his sons Oscar and Claude B., his daughter Elsie.2
Bernard Huffmeyer lived in 1918 Route 5, California, Moniteau County, Missouri.5
In 1918 Bernard Huffmeyer farmed in Missouri.5 Bernard registered for the draft of World War I on September 11, 1918 at Missouri described as white, a native-born citizen, of medium height and build with brown eyes and black hair.5
Bernard Huffmeyer lived in 1920 at Henning Mill Road in Fulton, Callaway County, Missouri. Residing with them were, their children Oscar, Claude, Gladys, Maurice, Bernard and May..3
In 1920 Bernard Huffmeyer farmed at Henning Mill Road in Missouri.3
Bernard is a head of household, under the name of "Benjamin Huffmeyer", on the 1920 U. S. Census of Henning Mill Road, Missouri. He was identified as a 43-year-old married white male, born in Missouri. He is able to read, write, and speak English. His father was born in Germany and his mother in New York. His farm is mortgaged and numbers 202 on the farm enumeration. Enumerated with him were: his wife Anna, his sons Oscar, Claude B., Maurice Louis and Bernard E., his daughters Gladys W. and May E.3
In 1930 Bernard Huffmeyer farmed in Callaway County, Missouri.9
Bernard is a head of household, under the name of "Ben Hoffmeyer", on the 1930 U. S. Census of Fulton Township, Callaway County, Missouri. He was identified as a 52-year-old married white male who owns his own farm, which numbers 86 on the farm schedule. He was 23-years-old when he first married. He and his mother were born in Missouri, while his father was born in Germany. He does not own a radio set, but does read, write, and speak English. Enumerated with him were: his wife Anna, his sons Bernard E., Claude B. and Maurice Louis, his daughters Gladys W. and May E.9
Bernard died on June 19, 1948 in Missouri at age 70.6
His obituary was published in the in an unknown newspaper on June 24, 1948 at Missouri.6

Family 1

Emma Seibert b. July, 1879, d. March 16, 1904
Child

Family 2

Anna (?) b. December 5, 1882, d. May, 1972
Children

Citations

  1. [S2364] 1880 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeyer household.
  2. [S4041] 1910 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Benjamin Hoffmeyer household.
  3. [S4042] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Benjamin Huffmeyer household.
  4. [S4033] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ben Hoffmeyer household.
  5. [S4180] Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918, Ancestry.com (database online), 2002.
  6. [S4219] Callaway County, Missouri Obituaries, 1920-1955, Ancestry.com (database online), 2005.
  7. [S4231] St. Francis Xavier Sesquicentennial Committee, History of St. Francis Xavier Church Taos.
  8. [S4032] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ben Hoffmeyer household.
  9. [S4064] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ben Hoffmeyer household.
  10. [S6054] Oscar Hoffmeyer e-mail to Linda A. Berg, February 14, 2008.

Nickolas Huffmeyer1

M, #16709, b. December 20, 1879
Father*Bernard Huffmeyer Jr.1 b. August 21, 1840, d. September 16, 1912
Mother*Emilie Herrig1 b. September, 1849, d. July 12, 1934
     Nickolas Huffmeyer was also known as Nick.2
Nickolas married Mamie (?)2 Nickolas Huffmeyer, son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. and Emilie Herrig, was born on December 20, 1879 in Missouri.1,3 Conflicting evidence placed his birth in March 1880, according to Charles J. Raithel's 1900 Census.4
Nickolas was enumerated as the son of Bernard Huffmeyer Jr. under the name of "Nickolas Hoffmeyer" on the 1880 U. S. Census of Liberty Township, Cole County, Missouri. He was listed as a five-month-old male born in Missouri. His father was born in Alsas and his mother in Missouri.1
Nickolas was employed as a finisher in a shoe factory. in 1900 at Missouri.5,4
Nickolas was enumerated under the name of "Nicholas Hoffmeyer" on the 1900 U.S. Census of 217 East High Street, Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri, where he was listed as a 20-year-old single white male, born in Missouri. His parents were born in Germany.
He is able to read, write, and speak English.. He was a boarder in the household of Charles J. Raithel (no known relationship.)4
Nickolas was enumerated under the name of ""Nickolas Hoffmeyer"" on the 1900 U.S. Census of 217 East High Street, Missouri, where he was listed as listed as a 20-year-old single white male born in Missouri. Both his parents were born in Germany. He is able to write and speak English, but is unable to read.. He was a farm hand residing in the household of (an unknown value) (no known relationship.)5
Nickolas Huffmeyer lived in 1918 3618 Iowa Street, St. Louis, Missouri.3
Nickolas was a shoe worker employed by Robert Johnson Shoe Company in September, 1918 at St. Louis, Missouri.3 Nickolas registered for the draft of World War I on September 12, 1918 at Missouri, described as white, a native-born citizen, of medium height and build with green eyes and light hair.3
Nickolas was a shoe worker in a shoe factory in 1920 at Missouri.2
Nickolas is a head of household, under the name of "Nick Hoffmeyer", on the 1920 U. S. Census of 3487 Indiana Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri. He was identified as a 39-year-old married white male, born in Missouri, as was his mother. His father was born in Alsace Lorraine. His home is rented and he is able to read, write, and speak English. Enumerated with him was his wife, Mamie.2
Nickolas was a re-sorter in a shoe factory. in 1930 at Cole County, Missouri.6
Nickolas is a head of household on the 1930 U. S. Census of 3208a Miami Street, St. Louis, Missouri. He was identified as a 48-year-old white male, born in Missouri. His parents were born in Germany. He has been in this, his first marriage since the age of thirty-seven years. He owns his home, valued at $7150.00. He does own a radio set, is a veteran, and is able to read, write, and speak English.. Enumerated with him were: his wife Mamie.7

Family

Mamie (?) b. 1895

Citations

  1. [S2364] 1880 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Bernard Hoffmeyer household.
  2. [S4060] 1920 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Nick Hoffmeyer household.
  3. [S4178] Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918, Ancestry.com (database online), 2002.
  4. [S8295] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Charles J. Raithel household.
  5. [S4053] 1900 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Charles Raithel household.
  6. [S4067] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Ernest H. Hoffmeyer household.
  7. [S4068] 1930 U.S. Federal Census (Population Schedule), Nicholas Hoffmeyer household.

Reverend J. A. Vogelweid

M, #16710
Reverend J. A. Vogelweid
     
******* Events *****************************.


Reverend J. A. Vogelweid presided at the baptism of Virginia Rose Speedy on September 23, 1917 at St. Peters Catholic Church, Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri.1

J. performed the funeral service for Pauline A. Hopen, it was held on February 19, 1965 at St. Peters Cathedral, Jefferson City, Cole County, Missouri.2
J. performed the funeral service for Frances Bock, it was held on July 8, 1968 at St. Peters Catholic Church, Missouri.3

Citations

  1. [S2668] St Peters Catholic Church, St Peters JC records, "Liber Baptismorum January 1910- October 1923", Page 51.
  2. [S7435] Funeral Card for Pauline Hopen Elliott.
  3. [S6350] Frances Bock Hopen Obituary, July 6, 1968.